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A gamma-ray determination of the Universe’s star formation history

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Science  30 Nov 2018:
Vol. 362, Issue 6418, pp. 1031-1034
DOI: 10.1126/science.aat8123

Article Information

vol. 362 no. 6418 1031-1034

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History: 
  • Received for publication April 6, 2018
  • Accepted for publication October 11, 2018
  • .

Author Information

  1. The Fermi-LAT Collaboration*,
  1. Email: majello{at}g.clemson.edu; helgason{at}hi.is; vpaliya{at}g.clemson.edu; justin.finke{at}nrl.navy.mil; abhishd{at}g.clemson.edu; alberto{at}gae.ucm.es
    1. 1Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526, Japan.
    2. 2Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany.
    3. 3Department of Physics and Astronomy, Kinard Lab of Physics, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, USA.
    4. 4Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA.
    5. 5Università di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy.
    6. 6Laboratoire Astrophysique Interactions Multi-échelles, Commissariat á l’énergie atomique–Institute of Research into the Fundamental Laws of the Universe/CNRS/Université Paris Diderot, Service d’Astrophysique, Commissariat á l’énergie atomique Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
    7. 7Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste, Italy.
    8. 8Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste, Italy.
    9. 9Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova, Italy.
    10. 10Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “G. Galilei,” Università di Padova, I-35131 Padova, Italy.
    11. 11NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA.
    12. 12Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA.
    13. 13Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy.
    14. 14Dipartimento di Fisica “M. Merlin” dell’Università e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy.
    15. 15Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari, Italy.
    16. 16W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
    17. 17Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, I-10125 Torino, Italy.
    18. 18Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino, I-10125 Torino, Italy.
    19. 19Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Padova, I-35122 Padova, Italy.
    20. 20Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Université Montpellier, CNRS/Institut national de physique nucléaire de physique des particules, F-34095 Montpellier, France.
    21. 21Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École polytechnique, CNRS/Institut national de physique nucléaire de physique des particules, F-91128 Palaiseau, France.
    22. 22Center for Research and Exploration in Space Science and Technology (CRESST) and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA.
    23. 23Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica–Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica Milano, I-20133 Milano, Italy.
    24. 24Italian Space Agency, 00133 Roma, Italy.
    25. 25Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375, USA.
    26. 26Space Science Data Center–Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, I-00133 Roma, Italy.
    27. 27Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy.
    28. 28Department of Physics and Astronomy, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA 94928, USA.
    29. 29Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    30. 30Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    31. 31Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica Istituto di Radioastronomia, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    32. 32Dipartimento di Astronomia, Università di Bologna, I-40127 Bologna, Italy.
    33. 33Università Telematica Pegaso, I-80132 Napoli, Italy.
    34. 34Grupo de Altas Energías, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.
    35. 35Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, 91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    36. 36Circolo Astrofili Talmassons, I-33030 Campoformido (UD), Italy.
    37. 37Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie de l’Environnement et de l’Espace–Université d’Orléans/CNRS, F-45071 Orléans Cedex 02, France.
    38. 38Station de radioastronomie de Nançay, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS/Institut national des sciences de l’univers, F-18330 Nançay, France.
    39. 39Department of Physics, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052, USA.
    40. 40Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, D-85741 Garching, Germany.
    41. 41Kungliga Tekniska högskolan Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    42. 42Science Institute, University of Iceland, IS-107 Reykjavik, Iceland.
    43. 43Department of Physics, Kungliga Tekniska högskolan Royal Institute of Technology, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    44. 44Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Institut national de physique nucléaire de physique des particules/CNRS, Université Bordeaux 1, BP120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex, France.
    45. 45Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526, Japan.
    46. 46Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma “Tor Vergata,” I-00133 Roma, Italy.
    47. 47Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Denver, Denver, CO 80208, USA.
    48. 48Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, D-80805 München, Germany.
    49. 49Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, I-34143 Trieste, Italy.
    50. 50Institut für Astro- und Teilchenphysik and Institut für Theoretische Physik, Leopold-Franzens-Universität Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria.
    51. 51Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park 2006, South Africa.
    52. 52Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    53. 53Laboratory for Space Research, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    54. 54Nycb Real-Time Computing Inc., Lattingtown, NY 11560, USA.
    55. 55Purdue University Northwest, Hammond, IN 46323, USA.
    56. 56Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan.
    57. 57CNRS, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4, France.
    58. 58Galaxies Astrophysique des Hautes Énergies Cosmologie, Universit de Toulouse, Université Paul Sabatier–Observatoire midi-pyrénées, Institut de Recherche en astrophysique et planétologie, F-31400 Toulouse, France.
    59. 59Institute of Space Sciences (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientficas–Institut d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya), Campus Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Barcelona, Spain.
    60. 60Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), E-08010 Barcelona, Spain.
    61. 61Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare–Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica Bologna, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    62. 62Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy.
    63. 63International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory Science Data Centre, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    64. 64Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University, Los Angeles, CA 90032, USA.
    65. 65Praxis Inc., Alexandria, VA 22303, USA; resident at Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375, USA.
    66. 66Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, and Università di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste, Italy.
    67. 67Center for Astrophysics and Cosmology, University of Nova Gorica, Nova Gorica, Slovenia.
    • * Fermi-LAT Collaboration authors and affiliations are listed in the supplementary materials.

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