An elephant-sized Late Triassic synapsid with erect limbs

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Science  04 Jan 2019:
Vol. 363, Issue 6422, pp. 78-80
DOI: 10.1126/science.aal4853
  • Fig. 1 The skeleton restoration of Lisowicia bojani.

    (A) Left humerus (ZPAL V.33/96) in ventral view. (B) Left radius (ZPAL V.33/665) in lateral view. (C) Cervical vertebrae (ZPAL V.33/720) in posterior view. (D) Dorsal vertebrae (ZPAL V.33/720) in lateral view. (E) Left pelvis (ZPAL V.33/720; ilium, pubis, and ischium) in lateral view. (F) Left femur (ZPAL V.33/75) in anterior view. (G) Left tibia (ZPAL V.33/75) in lateral view. (H) Left fibula (ZPAL V.33/75) in medial view. (I) Left ulna (ZPAL V.33/470) in lateral view. (J) Left scapulocoracoid (ZPAL V.33/468) in lateral view. (K) Fused quadrate and quadratojugal (ZPAL V.33/735) in posterior view. Scale bars, 10 cm (A) to (K); 1 m for the skeleton. (L) Light gray bones represent missing elements. il, ilium; pu, pubis; is, ischium.

  • Fig. 2 Comparison of the reconstructed pectoral girdle of Lisowicia bojani with another dicynodont, dinosaur, and recent mammal.

    (A) Position of bones of L. bojani in anterior and lateral views. Some proportions of the bones were estimated by means of comparison with articulated skeletons of Parakannemeyeria (IVPP V. 979) and Sinokannemeyeria (IVPP V.974), but most were inferred from the size of articulation areas. (B) Reconstruction of large dicynodont Stahleckeria (GPIT/RE/8001) in anterior and lateral views. (C and D) Hypothetical flexibility of the humerus in protraction-retraction. (E) Reconstruction of rhinoceros Diceros in anterior and lateral views based on MPUWr 502223. (F) Reconstruction of Triceratops in anterior and lateral views based on (27). Scale bars, 10 cm.

  • Fig. 3 Phylogeny of kannemeyeriiform dicynodonts and its relationship with the changes in femur length of dicynodonts and sauropodomorphs.

    (A) Time-calibrated phylogeny of the Triassic dicynodonts simplified after (22) (numerical ages for the base and top of Norian are based on the Chronostratigraphic Chart of the ICS v. 2018/8) with position of L. bojani. (B) Femur length (body size proxy) of sauropodomorph (black squares) and dicynodont (gray circles) taxa from the Middle to Late Triassic plotted at the stratigraphic range midpoints for each taxon. (C) Comparison of dicynodont femur bones (1, 2, ZPAL V.33/763, Lisowicia; 3, UCMP 32394, Placerias; 4, MCZ 378 58M, Ischigualastia; 5, MCN PV 3600, Dinodontosaurus; 6, GPIT/RE/8002, Stahleckeria).

Supplementary Materials

  • An elephant-sized Late Triassic synapsid with erect limbs

    Tomasz Sulej and Grzegorz Niedźwiedzki

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