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U-Pb constraints on pulsed eruption of the Deccan Traps across the end-Cretaceous mass extinction

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Science  22 Feb 2019:
Vol. 363, Issue 6429, pp. 862-866
DOI: 10.1126/science.aau2422
  • Fig. 1 Stratigraphy, sampling transects, and U-Pb age model for the Deccan Traps.

    (A) Elevation map of study location in the Western Ghats, India. A black segmented line denotes cross section X-X′ as shown in (B). Sampling transects are located by colored dots. (B) Geologic cross section through the field area, with sample locations indicated. Different basalt formations in the Deccan Traps are color-coded to the stratigraphic column in (C). Cross section is based on previous work (1417), modified according to our geochronology. (C) Volumetric stratigraphic column and magnetic chrons of the major formations of the Deccan Traps (22, 45). The plotted sample heights (“RB” sample prefix omitted) are based on the composite stratigraphic section compiled in fig. S2. The age model for the Deccan Traps, based on our U-Pb geochronology, is shown with 95% credible intervals. Horizontal gray bars indicate eruption ages derived from populations of zircon dates from each horizon; black horizontal bars show dates refined from the stratigraphic Bayesian model. The vertical gray-shaded bar shows an age for the Chicxulub impact (25).

  • Fig. 2 Eruption rate model for the Deccan Traps, based on U-Pb geochronology.

    (A) Results from the MCMC algorithm used to generate the age model in Fig. 1, converted to a probabilistic volumetric eruption rate for the Deccan Traps shown with contours up to 68% credible intervals. The U-Pb date for the Chicxulub impact is the same as in Fig. 1. Total global volcanic productivity (~3 to 4 km3/year) includes mid-ocean ridges and volcanic arcs (28). (B) Compilation of proxy records from ODP cores and outcrops. Upper data points are δ18O of species-specific benthic foraminifera from ODP 525 (46), ODP 1262 (36), and ODP 1209 (37); VPDB, Vienna PeeDee Belemnite standard. Temperature is calculated for benthic foraminifera Nuttallides truempyi in ODP 1262 (36). Osmium isotopic records come from bulk carbonate from both ODP cores and outcrop (40, 41). Age models are described in (13).

Supplementary Materials

  • U-Pb constraints on pulsed eruption of the Deccan Traps across the end-Cretaceous mass extinction

    Blair Schoene, Michael P. Eddy, Kyle M. Samperton, C. Brenhin Keller, Gerta Keller, Thierry Adatte, Syed F. R. Khadri

    Materials/Methods, Supplementary Text, Tables, Figures, and/or References

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    • Materials and Methods
    • Supplementary Text
    • Figs S1 to S11
    • Tables S1 to S3
    • References
    Codes for Bayesian modeling

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