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A lipase-independent pathway of lipid release and immune modulation by adipocytes

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Science  01 Mar 2019:
Vol. 363, Issue 6430, pp. 989-993
DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw2586

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  • The insightful functions of adipocyte in inflammation
    • Hsien-Hui Chung, PhD of Basic Medical Sciences, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital

    The recent report provided direct evidence that adipocyte interacted with adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) through adipocyte-derived exosomes (AdExos) in dynamic lipid homeostasis (1). However, the complicated cross-link in inflammation should be clarified.
    So far, adipocytes can be divided into three types, including brown adipocytes, white adipocytes and pink adipocytes. Their diverse functions are responsible for thermogenesis, energy storage and milk-secreting during pregnancy and lactation, respectively (2). Adipocyte functions can be altered by differential nutritional status, multiple hormones and genetic regulation, which are crutical for lipid metabolism linked to lipogenesis and lipolysis. Many studies have shown that metabolic disorders are associated with adipose macrophage-derived inflammation, including obesity, atherosclerosis and diabetes (3). As noted, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)/C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) pathway contributed to more macrophage accumulation and initiated further immune response linked to inflammation signaling﹝e.g. toll like receptor-4 (TLR4), nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)﹞(4). Thus, inflammation explained the correlation between adipocyte and macrophage due to impaired metabolic hormones, metabolic genes and inflammatory cytokines.
    Hypoxia is highly correlated with metabolic inflammation. Compared with normoxia, 3T3-L1 adipocytes exposed to hypoxia enhanced de novo lipoge...

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    Competing Interests: None declared.