Research Article

Tuning superconductivity in twisted bilayer graphene

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Science  08 Mar 2019:
Vol. 363, Issue 6431, pp. 1059-1064
DOI: 10.1126/science.aav1910

Upping the pressure in bilayer graphene

The discovery of superconductivity and exotic insulating phases in twisted bilayer graphene has established this material as a model system of strongly correlated electrons. To achieve superconductivity, the two layers of graphene need to be at a very precise angle with respect to each other. Yankowitz et al. now show that another experimental knob, hydrostatic pressure, can be used to tune the phase diagram of twisted bilayer graphene (see the Perspective by Feldman). Applying pressure increased the coupling between the layers, which shifted the superconducting transition to higher angles and somewhat higher temperatures.

Science, this issue p. 1059; see also p. 1035


Materials with flat electronic bands often exhibit exotic quantum phenomena owing to strong correlations. An isolated low-energy flat band can be induced in bilayer graphene by simply rotating the layers by 1.1°, resulting in the appearance of gate-tunable superconducting and correlated insulating phases. In this study, we demonstrate that in addition to the twist angle, the interlayer coupling can be varied to precisely tune these phases. We induce superconductivity at a twist angle larger than 1.1°—in which correlated phases are otherwise absent—by varying the interlayer spacing with hydrostatic pressure. Our low-disorder devices reveal details about the superconducting phase diagram and its relationship to the nearby insulator. Our results demonstrate twisted bilayer graphene to be a distinctively tunable platform for exploring correlated states.

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