An exotic quantum fluid in graphene

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Science  12 Apr 2019:
Vol. 364, Issue 6436, pp. 125
DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw9869

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Liquids such as water lack rigid shape, can move around obstacles, and exert forces during their collective flow. However, these conventional liquids are only one of a vast array of fluids. One such fluid, postulated many decades ago (1) but only observed relatively recently (25), arises when electrons in a conducting material begin to interact strongly with one another. This quantum fluid of electrons flows on scales a hundred times shorter than the width of a human hair, yet can flow just like water. On pages 162 and 158 of this issue, Berdyugin et al. (6) and Gallagher et al. (7), respectively, present experimental evidence for a two-dimensional fluid of electrons in graphene, a membrane of carbon atoms just one atom thick. The experiments uncover quantum kinds of fluid flows that cannot be observed in water. The results may lead to new kinds of quantum materials and electronics.