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Structural topology defines protective CD8+ T cell epitopes in the HIV proteome

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Science  03 May 2019:
Vol. 364, Issue 6439, pp. 480-484
DOI: 10.1126/science.aav5095

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Structure-based immunogen design

Vaccine design for highly mutable pathogens is hindered by a paucity of conserved immunogenic epitopes. Gaiha et al. employed a structure-based technique using network theory to assign scores to protein structure in order to infer mutational constraints (see the Perspective by McMichael and Carrington). The authors validated the method on proteins with published functional outcomes and then assessed mutational constraints within the HIV proteome. Highly networked residues strongly associated with immune control of HIV infection and may lead to protective immunogens for pathogens for which there is currently no efficient vaccine.

Science, this issue p. 480; see also p. 438

Abstract

Mutationally constrained epitopes of variable pathogens represent promising targets for vaccine design but are not reliably identified by sequence conservation. In this study, we employed structure-based network analysis, which applies network theory to HIV protein structure data to quantitate the topological importance of individual amino acid residues. Mutation of residues at important network positions disproportionately impaired viral replication and occurred with high frequency in epitopes presented by protective human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I alleles. Moreover, CD8+ T cell targeting of highly networked epitopes distinguished individuals who naturally control HIV, even in the absence of protective HLA alleles. This approach thereby provides a mechanistic basis for immune control and a means to identify CD8+ T cell epitopes of topological importance for rational immunogen design, including a T cell–based HIV vaccine.

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