Research Article

The glycan CA19-9 promotes pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer in mice

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Science  21 Jun 2019:
Vol. 364, Issue 6446, pp. 1156-1162
DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw3145

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Sweet bystander becomes a villain

Patients with pancreatic cancer often have elevated blood levels of CA19-9, a carbohydrate antigen present on many proteins. CA19-9 is thus commonly used as a biomarker for diagnosing and monitoring disease progression. In a study of mice, Engle et al. found that CA19-9 may be more than an innocent bystander that marks the presence of pancreatic disease; it may play a causal role in disease (see the Perspective by Halbrook and Crawford). Transgenic mice expressing the human enzymes that add CA19-9 to proteins developed severe pancreatitis that could be reversed by treatment with CA19-9 antibodies. When the transgenic mice also harbored a Kras oncogene, they went on to develop pancreatic cancer. These unexpected observations suggest new avenues for the treatment of pancreatic disease.

Science, this issue p. 1156; see also p. 1132

Abstract

Glycosylation alterations are indicative of tissue inflammation and neoplasia, but whether these alterations contribute to disease pathogenesis is largely unknown. To study the role of glycan changes in pancreatic disease, we inducibly expressed human fucosyltransferase 3 and β1,3-galactosyltransferase 5 in mice, reconstituting the glycan sialyl-Lewisa, also known as carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9). Notably, CA19-9 expression in mice resulted in rapid and severe pancreatitis with hyperactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. Mechanistically, CA19-9 modification of the matricellular protein fibulin-3 increased its interaction with EGFR, and blockade of fibulin-3, EGFR ligands, or CA19-9 prevented EGFR hyperactivation in organoids. CA19-9–mediated pancreatitis was reversible and could be suppressed with CA19-9 antibodies. CA19-9 also cooperated with the KrasG12D oncogene to produce aggressive pancreatic cancer. These findings implicate CA19-9 in the etiology of pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer and nominate CA19-9 as a therapeutic target.

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