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The small world of global marine fisheries: The cross-boundary consequences of larval dispersal

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Science  21 Jun 2019:
Vol. 364, Issue 6446, pp. 1192-1196
DOI: 10.1126/science.aav3409
  • Fig. 1 The network of spawn-attributed catch flows between EEZs.

    Each EEZ is a node (circle) of the network and its color represents its network community. The connectors or edges in this network flow clockwise from source to sink, with their thicknesses representing the magnitude of the net flow of caught biomass between the EEZs. Only the edges in the upper tercile of edge weights are shown, for clarity (see SM 3.2 for the full network). The size of each node represents its out-degree, i.e., the number of other EEZs for which it acts as a source of fish larvae, including connections not shown in this image.

  • Fig. 2 Regional currents and community networks.

    (A to D) The speed (shown in colors, in centimeters per second) and direction (arrows) of ocean surface currents in four regions with interconnected fisheries (West Africa, Baltic Sea, the Caribbean, and Western Pacific) during the month of maximum spawning activity in each (August, May, June, and May, respectively). (E to H) The corresponding subset of the global network encompassed by the four regions. Colors, node sizing, and connector directions are as for Fig. 1. Nodes are arranged to approximately correspond to geographic locations of the EEZs.

  • Fig. 3 Countries with highest outflowing and inflowing catches.

    (Left) Top 20 countries sorted by total outflowing catch (in thousands of tons) and value [in U.S. dollars (USD)] at risk. (Right) Top 20 countries sorted by total inflow of catch (thousands of tons) and value (USD) at risk. For both catch and landed values, data from 2005 to 2014 were used and attributed to larvae, by species. Resilience levels represent the estimated decline a population can endure without being considered vulnerable to local extinction.

  • Fig. 4 Hotspot map showing fishing dependency on spawning grounds in neighboring waters, by country.

    Countries are shaded by catch (in thousands of metric tons) at risk, with darker shades representing higher catches. Icons depict EEZs that are the most dependent on their neighbors. The catch icon indicates that more than 30% of a country’s catch value is dependent on neighboring spawning grounds, the GDP icon represents a risk to more than 0.8% of its GDP, the labor icon represents that more than 1.5% of its jobs are vulnerable, and the food security icon represents a food security dependence index >1.1%.

Supplementary Materials

  • The small world of global marine fisheries: The cross-boundary consequences of larval dispersal

    Nandini Ramesh, James A. Rising, Kimberly L. Oremus

    Materials/Methods, Supplementary Text, Tables, Figures, and/or References

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    • Materials and Methods 
    • Figs. S1 to S13
    • Tables S1 to S8 
    • References 

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