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Impact-resistant nacre-like transparent materials

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Science  28 Jun 2019:
Vol. 364, Issue 6447, pp. 1260-1263
DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw8988
  • Fig. 1 Design and fabrication of nacre-like glass panels.

    (A) Natural nacre is made of 95 volume % of mineral tablets bonded by a softer organic mortar. Nacre can deform, stop cracks, and absorb impact energy by the sliding of the microtablets on one another and over large volumes. (B) Fabrication protocol for nacre-like glass panels (scale bar: 100 μm). (C) Details of tablet geometry and overlap structure (scale bar: 500 μm). (D) Light transmittance of nacre-like glass panels compared with plain laminated panels. (Inset) Optical clarity of a typical engraved panel (scale bar: 10 mm).

  • Fig. 2 Puncture of small nacre-like glass panels.

    (A) Experimental setup: A simply supported glass panel is punctured with a loading nose at a quasi-static rate. (B) Puncture force–displacement curves for pure borosilicate glass and pure EVA panels, plain laminated panels, and nacre-like panels with [5A] and [1P4A] layer configurations. (C) Plain laminated and nacre-like panels before and during puncture (at a displacement = 3 mm). The lighting and background were chosen to highlight the engraving patterns. Scale bar: 5 mm. (D and E) Property maps showing (D) maximum force (strength) versus stiffness and (E) energy to puncture versus maximum force for different materials and designs.

  • Fig. 3 Micro-CT scans and analysis for plain laminated and nacre-like panels.

    (A) Three-dimensional microtomography perspectives of punctured samples (for plain laminated glass, arrays of microdots were engraved on the surface of the layers to track their relative sliding). (B) Maps of the sliding distance in the lowermost interlayer, showing larger and more distributed sliding in the nacre-like designs. (C) Maps of the SMI in the lowermost interlayer in the panel, also showing sliding vectors. (D) Schematic showing three sliding mechanisms corresponding to three values of the SMI. Tablet sliding was generally more bidirectional and isotropic in panels based on hexagonal tablets.

  • Fig. 4 Impact tests on large nacre-like panels and other transparent materials.

    (A) Experimental setup: A simply supported (50 mm by 50 mm by 3 mm) panel is impacted at a velocity of 2.34 m/s. (B) Energy to puncture versus mass density property map for the six designs and materials tested in impact (all had the same overall dimensions). (C) Corresponding snapshots from high-speed photography. Scale bar: 10 mm.

Supplementary Materials

  • Impact-resistant nacre-like transparent materials

    Z. Yin, F. Hannard, F. Barthelat

    Materials/Methods, Supplementary Text, Tables, Figures, and/or References

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    • Materials and Methods
    • Supplementary Text
    • Figs S1 and S6
    • Captions for Movies S1 to S3
    • References

    Images, Video, and Other Media

    Movie S1
    Bending tests of plain laminated beam and nacre-like glass beam. The beams were loaded in a four-point bending condition at a rate of 10 μm/s. The nacre-like beam had a tablet size L = 1 mm and showed distributed deformation with tablet sliding while the plain laminated beam failed with brittle glass fracture.
    Movie S2
    Puncture tests of nacre-like glass panels. The nacre-like panels showed a large volume of tablet sliding for both [5A] and [1P4A] layer configuration. The front plain layer in the [1P4A] configuration improved the stiffness and strength of [5A] configuration without compromising the tablet sliding mechanism. L=1.5 mm was identified as the optimal tablet size.
    Movie S3
    Impact tests of nacre-like glass panels and other types of transparent materials. All specimens were impacted by a 0.5 kg weight at the same speed of 2.13 m/s. At this impact energy, the nacre-like panels with the [2P8A] configuration were not punctured through. The nacre-like panel showed distributed deformation while other materials including PMMA, tempered soda-lime glass and borosilicate glass showed brittle and catastrophic failure.

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