Essays on Science and SocietyNeuromodulation

Optical modulation goes deep in the brain

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Science  02 Aug 2019:
Vol. 365, Issue 6452, pp. 456-457
DOI: 10.1126/science.aay4350

Figures

  • Nanoparticle-mediated noninvasive optogenetics

    (A) Schematic principle of upconversion nanoparticle (UCNP)–mediated near-infrared light (NIR) upconversion optogenetics. (B) Transcranial NIR stimulation of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) for modulating dopamine release in the mouse brain. (C) Electron micrographs of UCNPs distributed in the VTA tissue. Yellow arrows indicate UCNPs. ChR2, channelrhodopsin-2.

    GRAPHIC: N. CARY/SCIENCE, FROM S. CHEN

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