Report

TIR domains of plant immune receptors are NAD+-cleaving enzymes that promote cell death

See allHide authors and affiliations

Science  23 Aug 2019:
Vol. 365, Issue 6455, pp. 799-803
DOI: 10.1126/science.aax1771

You are currently viewing the abstract.

View Full Text

Log in to view the full text

Log in through your institution

Log in through your institution

NAD depletion as pathogen response

One way that plants respond to pathogen infection is by sacrificing the infected cells. The nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat immune receptors responsible for this hypersensitive response carry Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domains. In two papers, Horsefield et al. and Wan et al. report that these TIR domains cleave the metabolic cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) as part of their cell-death signaling in response to pathogens. Similar signaling links mammalian TIR-containing proteins to NAD+ depletion during Wallerian degeneration of neurons.

Science, this issue p. 793, p. 799

Abstract

Plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) immune receptors activate cell death and confer disease resistance by unknown mechanisms. We demonstrate that plant Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domains of NLRs are enzymes capable of degrading nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in its oxidized form (NAD+). Both cell death induction and NAD+ cleavage activity of plant TIR domains require known self-association interfaces and a putative catalytic glutamic acid that is conserved in both bacterial TIR NAD+-cleaving enzymes (NADases) and the mammalian SARM1 (sterile alpha and TIR motif containing 1) NADase. We identify a variant of cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose as a biomarker of TIR enzymatic activity. TIR enzymatic activity is induced by pathogen recognition and functions upstream of the genes enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1) and N requirement gene 1 (NRG1), which encode regulators required for TIR immune function. Thus, plant TIR-NLR receptors require NADase function to transduce recognition of pathogens into a cell death response.

View Full Text

Stay Connected to Science