Research Article

The formation of human populations in South and Central Asia

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Science  06 Sep 2019:
Vol. 365, Issue 6457, eaat7487
DOI: 10.1126/science.aat7487

Article Information

vol. 365 no. 6457

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History: 
  • Received for publication March 30, 2018
  • Resubmitted February 19, 2019
  • Accepted for publication July 30, 2019
  • .

Author Information

  1. Vagheesh M. Narasimhan1,*,,
  2. Nick Patterson2,3,*,,
  3. Priya Moorjani4,5,,
  4. Nadin Rohland1,2,,
  5. Rebecca Bernardos1,
  6. Swapan Mallick1,2,6,,
  7. Iosif Lazaridis1,
  8. Nathan Nakatsuka1,7,
  9. Iñigo Olalde1,
  10. Mark Lipson1,
  11. Alexander M. Kim1,8,
  12. Luca M. Olivieri9,
  13. Alfredo Coppa10,
  14. Massimo Vidale9,11,
  15. James Mallory12,
  16. Vyacheslav Moiseyev13,
  17. Egor Kitov14,15,16,
  18. Janet Monge17,
  19. Nicole Adamski1,6,
  20. Neel Alex18,
  21. Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht1,6,§,
  22. Francesca Candilio19,20,
  23. Kimberly Callan1,6,
  24. Olivia Cheronet19,21,22,
  25. Brendan J. Culleton23,
  26. Matthew Ferry1,6,
  27. Daniel Fernandes19,21,22,24,
  28. Suzanne Freilich22,
  29. Beatriz Gamarra19,21,25,||,,
  30. Daniel Gaudio19,21,
  31. Mateja Hajdinjak26,
  32. Éadaoin Harney1,6,27,
  33. Thomas K. Harper28,
  34. Denise Keating19,
  35. Ann Marie Lawson1,6,
  36. Matthew Mah1,2,6,
  37. Kirsten Mandl22,
  38. Megan Michel1,6,#,**,
  39. Mario Novak19,29,
  40. Jonas Oppenheimer1,6,††,
  41. Niraj Rai30,31,
  42. Kendra Sirak1,19,32,
  43. Viviane Slon26,
  44. Kristin Stewardson1,6,
  45. Fatma Zalzala1,6,
  46. Zhao Zhang1,
  47. Gaziz Akhatov15,
  48. Anatoly N. Bagashev33,
  49. Alessandra Bagnera9,
  50. Bauryzhan Baitanayev15,
  51. Julio Bendezu-Sarmiento34,
  52. Arman A. Bissembaev15,35,
  53. Gian Luca Bonora36,
  54. Temirlan T. Chargynov37,
  55. Tatiana Chikisheva38,
  56. Petr K. Dashkovskiy39,
  57. Anatoly Derevianko38,
  58. Miroslav Dobeš40,
  59. Katerina Douka41,42,
  60. Nadezhda Dubova14,
  61. Meiram N. Duisengali35,
  62. Dmitry Enshin33,
  63. Andrey Epimakhov43,44,
  64. Alexey V. Fribus45,
  65. Dorian Fuller46,47,
  66. Alexander Goryachev33,
  67. Andrey Gromov13,
  68. Sergey P. Grushin48,
  69. Bryan Hanks49,
  70. Margaret Judd49,
  71. Erlan Kazizov15,
  72. Aleksander Khokhlov50,
  73. Aleksander P. Krygin51,
  74. Elena Kupriyanova52,
  75. Pavel Kuznetsov50,
  76. Donata Luiselli53,
  77. Farhod Maksudov54,
  78. Aslan M. Mamedov55,
  79. Talgat B. Mamirov15,
  80. Christopher Meiklejohn56,
  81. Deborah C. Merrett57,
  82. Roberto Micheli9,58,
  83. Oleg Mochalov50,
  84. Samariddin Mustafokulov54,59,
  85. Ayushi Nayak41,
  86. Davide Pettener60,
  87. Richard Potts61,
  88. Dmitry Razhev33,
  89. Marina Rykun62,
  90. Stefania Sarno60,
  91. Tatyana M. Savenkova63,
  92. Kulyan Sikhymbaeva64,
  93. Sergey M. Slepchenko33,
  94. Oroz A. Soltobaev37,
  95. Nadezhda Stepanova38,
  96. Svetlana Svyatko13,65,
  97. Kubatbek Tabaldiev66,
  98. Maria Teschler-Nicola22,67,
  99. Alexey A. Tishkin68,
  100. Vitaly V. Tkachev69,
  101. Sergey Vasilyev14,70,
  102. Petr Velemínský71,
  103. Dmitriy Voyakin15,72,
  104. Antonina Yermolayeva15,
  105. Muhammad Zahir41,73,
  106. Valery S. Zubkov74,
  107. Alisa Zubova13,
  108. Vasant S. Shinde75,
  109. Carles Lalueza-Fox76,
  110. Matthias Meyer26,
  111. David Anthony77,
  112. Nicole Boivin41,,
  113. Kumarasamy Thangaraj30,,
  114. Douglas J. Kennett23,28,78,,
  115. Michael Frachetti79,80,,
  116. Ron Pinhasi19,22,,
  117. David Reich1,2,6,81,
  1. 1Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
  2. 2Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.
  3. 3Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
  4. 4Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
  5. 5Center for Computational Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
  6. 6Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
  7. 7Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
  8. 8Department of Anthropology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
  9. 9ISMEO - International Association of Mediterranean and Oriental Studies, Italian Archaeological Mission in Pakistan, 19200 Saidu Sharif (Swat), Pakistan.
  10. 10Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University, Rome 00185, Italy.
  11. 11Department of Cultural Heritage: Archaeology and History of Art, Cinema and Music, University of Padua, Padua 35139, Italy.
  12. 12School of Natural and Built Environment, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland, UK.
  13. 13Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Kunstkamera), Russian Academy of Science, St. Petersburg 199034, Russia.
  14. 14Center of Physical Anthropology, Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991, Russia.
  15. 15A.Kh. Margulan Institute of Archaeology, Almaty 050010, Kazakhstan.
  16. 16Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty 050040, Kazakhstan.
  17. 17University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
  18. 18Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
  19. 19Earth Institute, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland.
  20. 20Soprintendenza Archeologia, Belle Arti e Paesaggio per la Città Metropolitana di Cagliari e le Province di Oristano e Sud Sardegna, Cagliari 09124, Italy.
  21. 21School of Archaeology, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland.
  22. 22Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria.
  23. 23Institutes of Energy and the Environment, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.
  24. 24CIAS, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, Coimbra 3000-456, Portugal.
  25. 25Catalan Institute of Human Paleoecology and Social Evolution (IPHES), Tarragona 43007, Spain.
  26. 26Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig 04103, Germany.
  27. 27Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
  28. 28Department of Anthropology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.
  29. 29Institute for Anthropological Research, Zagreb 10000, Croatia.
  30. 30CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad 500 007, India.
  31. 31Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, Lucknow 226007, India.
  32. 32Department of Anthropology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.
  33. 33Tyumen Scientific Centre SB RAS, Institute of the Problems of Northern Development, Tyumen 625003, Russia.
  34. 34CNRS-EXT500, Directeur de la Delegation Archaologique Francaise en Afghanistan (DAFA), Embassy of France in Kabul, Afghanistan.
  35. 35Aktobe Regional Historical Museum, Aktobe 030006, Kazakhstan.
  36. 36Archaeology of Asia Department, ISMEO - International Association of Mediterranean and Oriental Studies, Rome RM00186, Italy.
  37. 37Kyrgyz National University, 720033 Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.
  38. 38Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia.
  39. 39Department of Political History, National and State-Confessional Relations, Altai State University, Barnaul 656049, Russia.
  40. 40Institute of Archaeology, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague 118 01, Czech Republic.
  41. 41Department of Archaeology, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena 07745, Germany.
  42. 42Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit, Research Laboratory for Archaeology and the History of Art, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QY, UK.
  43. 43Institute of History and Archaeology, Ural Branch RAS, Yekaterinburg 620990, Russia.
  44. 44South Ural State University, Chelyabinsk 454080, Russia.
  45. 45Department of Archaeology, Kemerovo State University, Kemerovo 650043, Russia.
  46. 46Institute of Archaeology, University College London, London WC1H 0PY, UK.
  47. 47School of Cultural Heritage, Northwest University, Shanxi, 710069, China.
  48. 48Department of Archaeology, Ethnography and Museology, Altai State University, Barnaul 656049, Russia.
  49. 49Department of Anthropology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA.
  50. 50Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education, Samara 443099, Russia.
  51. 51West Kazakhstan Regional Center for History and Archaeology, Uralsk 090000, Kazakhstan.
  52. 52Scientific and Educational Center of Study on the Problem of Nature and Man, Chelyabinsk State University, Chelyabinsk 454021, Russia.
  53. 53Department of Cultural Heritage, University of Bologna, 48121 Ravenna, Italy.
  54. 54Institute for Archaeological Research, Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences, Samarkand 140151, Uzbekistan.
  55. 55Center for Research, Restoration and Protection of Historical and Cultural Heritage of Aktobe Region, Aktobe 030007, Kazakhstan.
  56. 56Department of Anthropology, University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, MB R3B 2E9, Canada.
  57. 57Department of Archaeology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada.
  58. 58MiBAC – Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali - Soprintendenza Archeologia, belle arti e paesaggio del Friuli Venezia Giulia, 34135 Trieste, Italy.
  59. 59Afrosiab Museum, Samarkand 140151, Uzbekistan.
  60. 60Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum – University of Bologna, Bologna 40126, Italy.
  61. 61Human Origins Program, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20013, USA.
  62. 62National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk 634050, Russia.
  63. 63F. Voino-Yasenetsky Krasnoyarsk State Medical University, Krasnoyarsk 660022, Russia.
  64. 64Central State Museum Republic of Kazakhstan, Samal-1 Microdistrict, Almaty 050010, Kazakhstan.
  65. 65CHRONO Centre for Climate, the Environment, and Chronology, Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland, UK.
  66. 66Kyrgyz-Turkish Manas University, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.
  67. 67Department of Anthropology, Natural History Museum Vienna, 1010 Vienna, Austria.
  68. 68Department of Archaeology, Ethnography and Museology, The Laboratory of Interdisciplinary Studies in Archaeology of Western Siberia and Altai, Altai State University, Barnaul 656049, Russia.
  69. 69Institute of Steppe, Ural Branch RAS, Orenburg 460000, Russia.
  70. 70Center for Egyptological Studies RAS, Moscow 119991, Russia.
  71. 71Department of Anthropology, National Museum, Prague 115 79, Czech Republic.
  72. 72Archaeological Expertise LLP, Almaty 050060, Kazakhstan.
  73. 73Department of Archaeology, Hazara University, Mansehra 21300, Pakistan.
  74. 74N.F. Katanov Khakassia State University, Abakan 655017, Russia.
  75. 75Department of Archaeology, Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute, Pune 411006, India.
  76. 76Institute of Evolutionary Biology, CSIC-Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona 08003, Spain.
  77. 77Anthropology Department, Hartwick College, Oneonta, NY 13820, USA.
  78. 78Department of Anthropology, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA.
  79. 79Department of Anthropology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63112, USA.
  80. 80Spatial Analysis, Interpretation, and Exploration Laboratory, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63112, USA.
  81. 81Max Planck-Harvard Research Center for the Archaeoscience of the Ancient Mediterranean, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
  1. Corresponding author. Email: vagheesh{at}mail.harvard.edu (V.M.N.); nickp{at}broadinstitute.org (N.P.); frachetti{at}wustl.edu (M.Fr.); ron.pinhasi{at}univie.ac.at (R.Pi.); reich{at}genetics.med.harvard.edu (D.Re.)
  1. * These authors contributed equally to this work.

  2. These authors contributed equally to this work.

  • § Present address: Department of Anthropology, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA.

  • || Present address: Institut Català de Paleoecologia Humana i Evolució Social (IPHES), 43007 Tarragona, Spain.

  • Present address: Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV), Àrea de Prehistòria, 43002 Tarragona, Spain.

  • # Present address: Max Planck-Harvard Research Center for the Archaeoscience of the Ancient Mediterranean, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.

  • ** Present address: Department of Human Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge MA, 02138, USA.

  • †† Present address: Department of Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA.

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