Research Article

Palmitoylation of NOD1 and NOD2 is required for bacterial sensing

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Science  25 Oct 2019:
Vol. 366, Issue 6464, pp. 460-467
DOI: 10.1126/science.aau6391

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NODs require S-palmitoylation to signal

The compartmentalization of proteins within the cell is essential for their function. The addition of lipid molecules redistributes proteins to the cell surface or to membrane-bound organelles. Working in transgenic mice and in tissue cultured cells, Lu et al. found that nucleotide oligomerization domain–like receptors 1 and 2 (NOD1 and NOD2), two proteins responsible for detecting bacterial products, required lipid modifications for their recruitment to the cell membrane and function. The specific modification, palmitoylation at a cysteine thiol, was mediated by the enzyme ZDHHC5. Loss of ZDHHC5 or removal of key modification residues in NOD1 and NOD2 abolished their function, compromising antibacterial responses. Human variants of NOD2 display altered palmitoylation, which could help to explain many inflammatory conditions, such as irritable bowel syndrome.

Science, this issue p. 460

Abstract

The nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)–like receptors 1 and 2 (NOD1/2) are intracellular pattern-recognition proteins that activate immune signaling pathways in response to peptidoglycans associated with microorganisms. Recruitment to bacteria-containing endosomes and other intracellular membranes is required for NOD1/2 signaling, and NOD1/2 mutations that disrupt membrane localization are associated with inflammatory bowel disease and other inflammatory conditions. However, little is known about this recruitment process. We found that NOD1/2 S-palmitoylation is required for membrane recruitment and immune signaling. ZDHHC5 was identified as the palmitoyltransferase responsible for this critical posttranslational modification, and several disease-associated mutations in NOD2 were found to be associated with defective S-palmitoylation. Thus, ZDHHC5-mediated S-palmitoylation of NOD1/2 is critical for their ability to respond to peptidoglycans and to mount an effective immune response.

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