Efficient, stable solar cells by using inherent bandgap of α-phase formamidinium lead iodide

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Science  08 Nov 2019:
Vol. 366, Issue 6466, pp. 749-753
DOI: 10.1126/science.aay7044

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Maintaining the bandgap

The bandgap of the black α-phase of formamidinium-based lead triiodide (FAPbI3) is near optimal for creating high-efficiency perovskite solar cells. However, this phase is unstable, and the additives normally used to stabilize this phase at ambient temperature—such as methylammonium, caesium, and bromine—widen its bandgap. Min et al. show that doping of the α-FAPbI3 phase with methylenediammonium dichloride enabled power conversion efficiencies of 23.7%, which were maintained after 600 hours of operation. Unencapsulated devices had high thermal stability and retained >90% efficiency even after annealing for 20 hours at 150°C in air.

Science, this issue p. 749


In general, mixed cations and anions containing formamidinium (FA), methylammonium (MA), caesium, iodine, and bromine ions are used to stabilize the black α-phase of the FA-based lead triiodide (FAPbI3) in perovskite solar cells. However, additives such as MA, caesium, and bromine widen its bandgap and reduce the thermal stability. We stabilized the α-FAPbI3 phase by doping with methylenediammonium dichloride (MDACl2) and achieved a certified short-circuit current density of between 26.1 and 26.7 milliamperes per square centimeter. With certified power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 23.7%, more than 90% of the initial efficiency was maintained after 600 hours of operation with maximum power point tracking under full sunlight illumination in ambient conditions including ultraviolet light. Unencapsulated devices retained more than 90% of their initial PCE even after annealing for 20 hours at 150°C in air and exhibited superior thermal and humidity stability over a control device in which FAPbI3 was stabilized by MAPbBr3.

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