PerspectiveVOLCANOLOGY

Calderas collapse as magma flows into rifts

See allHide authors and affiliations

Science  06 Dec 2019:
Vol. 366, Issue 6470, pp. 1200-1201
DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz7126

You are currently viewing the summary.

View Full Text

Log in to view the full text

Log in through your institution

Log in through your institution

Summary

Major magma drainage from volcanoes causes the collapse of volcanic edifices, forming calderas that can be both many kilometers wide and hundreds of meters deep. Many calderas form during major explosive eruptions, when magma erupts from fractures on ring faults that bound calderas. However, the most recent caldera-forming events at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai'ei, in 2018 (1) and at Bárðarbunga, Iceland, in 2014–2015 (2) formed by a different mechanism. Both events were gradual caldera collapses that occurred as magma flowed over long distances into rifts far away from volcano summits. The caldera ring faults associated with collapse only began to move after a major magma withdrawal into a rift zone.

View Full Text

Stay Connected to Science