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Extinction filters mediate the global effects of habitat fragmentation on animals

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Science  06 Dec 2019:
Vol. 366, Issue 6470, pp. 1236-1239
DOI: 10.1126/science.aax9387
  • Fig. 1 Geographic distributions of sample study regions and historical disturbances.

    (A) Locations of the 35 BIOFRAG regions where the 73 datasets included in our analysis were collected. Areas that can support forests are shown in green. The regions are colored according to disturbance severity. (B) Distributions of historical disturbances: tropical storms, historical (long-term) deforestation, high-intensity crown fires, and glaciation. (C) Typical periods over which high-severity disturbances return to the same location.

  • Fig. 2 The proportion of forest species associated with core habitat is mitigated by historical exposure to disturbance.

    (A) Estimated proportions (with 95% confidence intervals) are based on mixed-effects logistic regression models.The binary disturbance variable (low- versus high-disturbance sites) indicates whether each of the 73 BIOFRAG datasets comes from a location that has had high-severity disturbances of any type (glaciation, tropical storms, crown fires, or >50% historical forest loss). Numbers of species are shown beside point estimates. (B) Tropical rainforest, undisturbed by stand-replacing disturbance. (C) Tropical deforestation for pastureland. (D) Temperate forest landscape that has been disturbed by wildfire. (E) Temperate forest clearcuts. The extinction filter hypothesis predicts that species in disturbance-prone regions (D) should be less sensitive to habitat edges created by anthropogenic fragmentation (E) than species that have evolved in landscapes where disturbances are rare [(B) and (C)]. [Photos: (B) C. Ziegler; (C) to (E) M. G. Betts]

  • Fig. 3 Logistic regression models used to estimate the proportion of forest core species as a function of absolute latitude.

    In (A), each point shows the proportion of species classified as core within each BIOFRAG region. Point sizes indicate the dataset rating, with higher values reflecting better estimation of edge sensitivity. Point colors indicate disturbance level associated with each region. The response variable is whether or not a species was classified as preferring forest core habitat. Overall, the general pattern observed (decreasing relationship with latitude for forest species) is what one would predict if high-latitude species have evolved to cope with disturbance. Numbers of observations are shown in panel titles. Study region absolute latitudes are shown using black tick marks (B). All P values were false discovery rate (FDR)–adjusted to control the expected proportion of type I (false positive) errors, and taxonomic class was included as a random effect in the “All species” (A) model. Shaded portions represent 95% confidence bands.

Supplementary Materials

  • Extinction filters mediate the global effects of habitat fragmentation on animals

    Matthew G. Betts, Christopher Wolf;, Marion Pfeifer, Cristina Banks-Leite, Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez, Danilo Bandini Ribeiro, Jos Barlow, Felix Eigenbrod, Deborah Faria, Robert J. Fletcher Jr., Adam S. Hadley, Joseph E. Hawes, Robert D. Holt, Brian Klingbeil, Urs Kormann, Luc Lens, Taal Levi, Guido F. Medina-Rangel, Stephanie L. Melles, Dirk Mezger, José Carlos Morante-Filho, C. David L. Orme, Carlos A. Peres, Benjamin T. Phalan, Anna Pidgeon, Hugh Possingham, William J. Ripple, Eleanor M. Slade, Eduardo Somarriba, Joseph A. Tobias, Jason M. Tylianakis, J. Nicolás Urbina-Cardona, Jonathon J. Valente, James I. Watling, Konstans Wells, Oliver R. Wearn, Eric Wood, Richard Young, Robert M. Ewers

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