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Four glial cells regulate ER stress resistance and longevity via neuropeptide signaling in C. elegans

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Science  24 Jan 2020:
Vol. 367, Issue 6476, pp. 436-440
DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz6896

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Taking the stress out of life

In the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, a roundworm, it has been shown that neurons can communicate proteostasis to the periphery to affect aging. Frakes et al. have now identified astrocytelike glial cells that also act as central regulators of systemic protein homeostasis and aging (see the Perspective by Miklas and Brunet). They found that the life span of C. elegans can be extended by expression of a constitutively active version of the transcription factor XBP-1s, which mediates the unfolded protein response of the endoplasmic reticulum (UPRER), in a specific subset of glial cells. Glial XBP-1s initiates induction of the UPRER in distal intestinal cells, which makes the worms more resistant to chronic ER stress. Neuropeptide signaling was required for glial-mediated longevity and induction of the peripheral UPRER, suggesting a distinct mechanism from that initiated by neuronal XBP-1s. Thus, in this animal model of aging, a mere four cells can control organismal physiology and aging

Science, this issue p. 436; see also p. 365

Abstract

The ability of the nervous system to sense cellular stress and coordinate protein homeostasis is essential for organismal health. Unfortunately, stress responses that mitigate disturbances in proteostasis, such as the unfolded protein response of the endoplasmic reticulum (UPRER), become defunct with age. In this work, we expressed the constitutively active UPRER transcription factor, XBP-1s, in a subset of astrocyte-like glia, which extended the life span in Caenorhabditis elegans. Glial XBP-1s initiated a robust cell nonautonomous activation of the UPRER in distal cells and rendered animals more resistant to protein aggregation and chronic ER stress. Mutants deficient in neuropeptide processing and secretion suppressed glial cell nonautonomous induction of the UPRER and life-span extension. Thus, astrocyte-like glial cells play a role in regulating organismal ER stress resistance and longevity.

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