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The spatial structure of Phanerozoic marine animal diversity

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Science  24 Apr 2020:
Vol. 368, Issue 6489, pp. 420-424
DOI: 10.1126/science.aay8309
  • Fig. 1 Correlations between changes in Phanerozoic marine animal diversity (Eumetazoa excluding Tetrapoda) and changes in spatial sampling and habitable area.

    (A) Uncorrected and sampling standardized [SQS (5), quorum = 0.7] global genus richness per bin. Cm, Cambrian; O, Ordovician; S, Silurian; D, Devonian; C, Carboniferous; P, Permian; Tr, Triassic; J, Jurassic; K, Cretaceous; Pg, Paleogene; Ng, Neogene. (B) Spatial sampling (summed MST length in kilometers) and habitable area [shallow marine coverage; number of (no.) columns]. (C) Relationship between spatial sampling and uncorrected genus richness per interval. R2, coefficient of determination. (D) Relationship between habitable area (shallow marine coverage, no. columns) and uncorrected genus richness per interval. (E) Relationship between spatial sampling and sampling-standardized (SQS, quorum = 0.7) genus richness per interval. (F) Relationship between habitable area (shallow marine coverage, no. columns) and sampling-standardized (SQS, quorum = 0.7) genus richness per interval. All variables are first-differenced. R2 and P values derive from linear model fits. For information about variables, see table S1. Colors of points in (C) to (F) match the colors of geological periods in (A) and (B).

  • Fig. 2 Spatially standardized diversity patterns for 1500, 2500, and 3500-km MST lengths.

    Genus richness estimated using SQS (5) [quorum (q) = 0.9]. Black lines and points indicate bin-level medians.

  • Fig. 3 Spatially standardized genus richness patterns for selected groups of marine invertebrates at 2000-km MST length.

    Richness estimated using SQS (5) (quorum = 0.8).

  • Fig. 4 Model-averaged parameter estimates for coefficients at low and mid-paleolatitudes.

    Models were fitted to spatially standardized diversity estimates using SQS (quorum = 0.9). See table S1 for descriptions of explanatory variables. Confidence intervals represent interquartile ranges. Red points signify estimates that do not overlap with zero; gray points indicate points that do. Extn., extinction; Prop., proportion; Abs., absolute; Paleolat., paleolatitude; Ref., reference; Lithol., lithology.

Supplementary Materials

  • The spatial structure of Phanerozoic marine animal diversity

    R. A. Close, R. B. J. Benson, E. E. Saupe, M. E. Clapham, R. J. Butler

    Materials/Methods, Supplementary Text, Tables, Figures, and/or References

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    • Materials and Methods
    • Figs. S1 to S19
    • Tables S1 to S8
    • Caption for Data S1
    • References
    MDAR Reproducibility Checklist
    Data S1
    Zip file containing all analysis code (in the R statistical programming language) and data required to run the analyses in this paper. Analysis code is bundled together with a Docker container image for maximum reproducibility. Please refer to the file README.md for full instructions on running these analyses.

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