Research Article

Elesclomol alleviates Menkes pathology and mortality by escorting Cu to cuproenzymes in mice

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Science  08 May 2020:
Vol. 368, Issue 6491, pp. 620-625
DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz8899

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Elesclomol rescues Menkes disease mice

Menkes disease results from loss-of-function mutations in the P-type copper-transporting adenosine triphosphatase ATP7A. Children diagnosed with Menkes present with connective tissue abnormalities and neurodegenerative changes that result in death caused by severe copper deficiency, typically before 3 years of age. In the brain, lack of copper impairs cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) in the electron transport chain, which leads to progressive neurological injury in Menkes patients. No treatment exists for Menkes disease because of the difficulty in supplying the brain with copper using traditional hydrophilic copper complexes such as copper histidine. Guthrie et al. developed a treatment involving the drug elesclomol that successfully alleviated disease symptoms in a mouse model of Menkes disease (see the Perspective by Lutsenko).

Science, this issue p. 620; see also p. 584

Abstract

Loss-of-function mutations in the copper (Cu) transporter ATP7A cause Menkes disease. Menkes is an infantile, fatal, hereditary copper-deficiency disorder that is characterized by progressive neurological injury culminating in death, typically by 3 years of age. Severe copper deficiency leads to multiple pathologies, including impaired energy generation caused by cytochrome c oxidase dysfunction in the mitochondria. Here we report that the small molecule elesclomol escorted copper to the mitochondria and increased cytochrome c oxidase levels in the brain. Through this mechanism, elesclomol prevented detrimental neurodegenerative changes and improved the survival of the mottled-brindled mouse—a murine model of severe Menkes disease. Thus, elesclomol holds promise for the treatment of Menkes and associated disorders of hereditary copper deficiency.

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