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Comparative pathogenesis of COVID-19, MERS, and SARS in a nonhuman primate model

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Science  29 May 2020:
Vol. 368, Issue 6494, pp. 1012-1015
DOI: 10.1126/science.abb7314

Coronavirus in nonhuman primates

We urgently need vaccines and drug treatments for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Even under these extreme circumstances, we must have animal models for rigorous testing of new strategies. Rockx et al. have undertaken a comparative study of three human coronaviruses in cynomolgus macaques: severe acute respiratory syndrome–coronavirus (SARS-CoV) (2002), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)–CoV (2012), and SARS-CoV-2 (2019), which causes COVID-19 (see the Perspective by Lakdawala and Menachery). The most recent coronavirus has a distinct tropism for the nasal mucosa but is also found in the intestinal tract. Although none of the older macaques showed the severe symptoms that humans do, the lung pathology observed was similar. Like humans, the animals shed virus for prolonged periods from their upper respiratory tracts, and like influenza but unlike the 2002 SARS-CoV, this shedding peaked early in infection. It is this cryptic virus shedding that makes case detection difficult and can jeopardize the effectiveness of isolation.

Science, this issue p. 1012; see also p. 942

Abstract

The current pandemic coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome–coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was recently identified in patients with an acute respiratory syndrome, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To compare its pathogenesis with that of previously emerging coronaviruses, we inoculated cynomolgus macaques with SARS-CoV-2 or Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)–CoV and compared the pathology and virology with historical reports of SARS-CoV infections. In SARS-CoV-2–infected macaques, virus was excreted from nose and throat in the absence of clinical signs and detected in type I and II pneumocytes in foci of diffuse alveolar damage and in ciliated epithelial cells of nasal, bronchial, and bronchiolar mucosae. In SARS-CoV infection, lung lesions were typically more severe, whereas they were milder in MERS-CoV infection, where virus was detected mainly in type II pneumocytes. These data show that SARS-CoV-2 causes COVID-19–like disease in macaques and provides a new model to test preventive and therapeutic strategies.

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