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An excess of small-scale gravitational lenses observed in galaxy clusters

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Science  11 Sep 2020:
Vol. 369, Issue 6509, pp. 1347-1351
DOI: 10.1126/science.aax5164

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Gravitational lenses in galaxy clusters

The large mass of a galaxy cluster deflects light from background objects, a phenomenon known as gravitational lensing. The large-scale gravitational lens caused by the whole cluster can be modified by smaller-scale mass concentrations within the cluster, such as individual galaxies. Meneghetti et al. examined these small-scale gravitational lenses in observations of 11 galaxy clusters. They found an order of magnitude more small-scale lenses than would be expected from cosmological simulations. The authors conclude that there is an unidentified problem with either prevailing simulation methods or standard cosmology.

Science, this issue p. 1347

Abstract

Cold dark matter (CDM) constitutes most of the matter in the Universe. The interplay between dark and luminous matter in dense cosmic environments, such as galaxy clusters, is studied theoretically using cosmological simulations. Observations of gravitational lensing are used to characterize the properties of substructures—the small-scale distribution of dark matter—in clusters. We derive a metric, the probability of strong lensing events produced by dark-matter substructure, and compute it for 11 galaxy clusters. The observed cluster substructures are more efficient lenses than predicted by CDM simulations, by more than an order of magnitude. We suggest that systematic issues with simulations or incorrect assumptions about the properties of dark matter could explain our results.

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