Contents

22 January 2021
Vol 371, Issue 6527

About The Cover

Cover image expansion

COVER Some cobras, such as this Mozambique spitting cobra (Naja mossambica), use venom spitting as an effective long-range defense mechanism. The three origins of venom spitting in snakes coincide with convergent changes to venom composition, allowing venom to serve a defensive function by producing enhanced pain in the recipient. These findings emphasize that evolution can funnel complex adaptations down repeatable pathways. See page 386.
Photo: Guy Edwardes/NPL/Minden Pictures