PerspectiveViewpoint: COVID-19

Sex differences in immune responses

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Science  22 Jan 2021:
Vol. 371, Issue 6527, pp. 347-348
DOI: 10.1126/science.abe7199


  • Sex differences in factors that affect infection and immunity in COVID-19

    SARS-CoV-2 binds to ACE2 to initiate host cell entry. This activates the viral RNA sensors TLR3/7/8 and RIG-I–MDA-5, which induce secretion of IFNs and other inflammatory cytokines, leading to innate and adaptive immune responses. In each of these steps, sex differences may shape the antiviral immune response.


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