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First-principles design of a single-atom–alloy propane dehydrogenation catalyst

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Science  25 Jun 2021:
Vol. 372, Issue 6549, pp. 1444-1447
DOI: 10.1126/science.abg8389

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Rhodium atoms for alkane dehydrogenation

Nanoparticles of rhodium dispersed on metal oxides are generally poor catalysts for alkane dehydrogenation because the reactants bind too strongly to the metal. Hannagan et al. performed first-principle calculations indicating that single rhodium atoms in a copper surface should be stable and selective for conversion of propane to propene and hydrogen. Model studies of single rhodium atoms embedded in a copper (111) surface revealed a very high selectivity to propene and high resistance to the formation of surface carbon that would deactivate the catalyst.

Science, abg8389, this issue p. 1444

Abstract

The complexity of heterogeneous catalysts means that a priori design of new catalytic materials is difficult, but the well-defined nature of single-atom–alloy catalysts has made it feasible to perform unambiguous theoretical modeling and precise surface science experiments. Herein we report the theory-led discovery of a rhodium-copper (RhCu) single-atom–alloy catalyst for propane dehydrogenation to propene. Although Rh is not generally considered for alkane dehydrogenation, first-principles calculations revealed that Rh atoms disperse in Cu and exhibit low carbon-hydrogen bond activation barriers. Surface science experiments confirmed these predictions, and together these results informed the design of a highly active, selective, and coke-resistant RhCu nanoparticle catalyst that enables low-temperature nonoxidative propane dehydrogenation.

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