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Autonomous self-repair in piezoelectric molecular crystals

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Science  16 Jul 2021:
Vol. 373, Issue 6552, pp. 321-327
DOI: 10.1126/science.abg3886

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Autonomous self-healing

The ability to autonomously restore shape or self-heal are useful properties that have been incorporated into a range of materials, including metals and polymers. Bhunia et al. found that both of these abilities could be achieved in piezoelectric molecular crystals, specifically bipyrazole organic crystals. When the crystals are fractured, they develop charged surfaces that attract each other, drawing the two faces together to enable self-repair as long as they remain within a critical distance of each other. The effect can also be seen in other noncentrosymmetric piezoelectric crystals.

Science, abg3886, this issue p. 321

Abstract

Living tissue uses stress-accumulated electrical charge to close wounds. Self-repairing synthetic materials, which are typically soft and amorphous, usually require external stimuli, prolonged physical contact, and long healing times. We overcome many of these limitations in piezoelectric bipyrazole organic crystals, which recombine following mechanical fracture without any external direction, autonomously self-healing in milliseconds with crystallographic precision. Kelvin probe force microscopy, birefringence experiments, and atomic-resolution structural studies reveal that these noncentrosymmetric crystals, with a combination of hydrogen bonds and dispersive interactions, develop large stress-induced opposite electrical charges on fracture surfaces, prompting an electrostatically driven precise recombination of the pieces via diffusionless self-healing.

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