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Covalent surface modifications and superconductivity of two-dimensional metal carbide MXenes

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Science  02 Jul 2020:
eaba8311
DOI: 10.1126/science.aba8311

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Abstract

Versatile chemical transformations of surface functional groups in 2D transition-metal carbides (MXenes) open up a new design space for this broad class of functional materials. We introduce a general strategy to install and remove surface groups by performing substitution and elimination reactions in molten inorganic salts. Successful synthesis of MXenes with O, NH, S, Cl, Se, Br, and Te surface terminations, as well as bare MXenes (no surface termination) was demonstrated. These MXenes show distinctive structural and electronic properties. For example, the surface groups control interatomic distances in the MXene lattice, and Tin+1Cn (n = 1, 2) MXenes terminated with Te2− ligands show a giant, (>18%) in-plane lattice expansion compared to the bulk TiC lattice. Nb2C MXenes exhibited surface-group-dependent superconductivity.

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