Figure 1

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The Genome Sequence of the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae
Robert A. Holt, G. Mani Subramanian, Aaron Halpern, Granger G. Sutton, Rosane Charlab, Deborah R. Nusskern, Patrick Wincker, Andrew G. Clark, José M. C. Ribeiro, Ron Wides, Steven L. Salzberg, Brendan Loftus, Mark Yandell, William H. Majoros, Douglas B. Rusch, Zhongwu Lai, Cheryl L. Kraft, Josep F. Abril, Veronique Anthouard, Peter Arensburger, Peter W. Atkinson, Holly Baden, Veronique de Berardinis, Danita Baldwin, Vladimir Benes, Jim Biedler, Claudia Blass, Randall Bolanos, Didier Boscus, Mary Barnstead, Shuang Cai, Angela Center, Kabir Chatuverdi, George K. Christophides, Mathew A. Chrystal, Michele Clamp, Anibal Cravchik, Val Curwen, Ali Dana, Art Delcher, Ian Dew, Cheryl A. Evans, Michael Flanigan, Anne Grundschober-Freimoser, Lisa Friedli, Zhiping Gu, Ping Guan, Roderic Guigo, Maureen E. Hillenmeyer, Susanne L. Hladun, James R. Hogan, Young S. Hong, Jeffrey Hoover, Olivier Jaillon, Zhaoxi Ke, Chinnappa Kodira, Elena Kokoza, Anastasios Koutsos, Ivica Letunic, Alex Levitsky, Yong Liang, Jhy-Jhu Lin, Neil F. Lobo, John R. Lopez, Joel A. Malek, Tina C. McIntosh, Stephan Meister, Jason Miller, Clark Mobarry, Emmanuel Mongin, Sean D. Murphy, David A. O �Brochta, Cynthia Pfannkoch, Rong Qi, Megan A. Regier, Karin Remington, Hongguang Shao, Maria V. Sharakhova, Cynthia D. Sitter, Jyoti Shetty, Thomas J. Smith, Renee Strong, Jingtao Sun, Dana Thomasova, Lucas Q. Ton, Pantelis Topalis, Zhijian Tu, Maria F. Unger, Brian Walenz, Aihui Wang, Jian Wang, Mei Wang, Xuelan Wang, Kerry J. Woodford, Jennifer R. Wortman, Martin Wu, Alison Yao, Evgeny M. Zdobnov, Hongyu Zhang, Qi Zhao, Shaying Zhao, Shiaoping C. Zhu, Igor Zhimulev, Mario Coluzzi, Alessandra della Torre, Charles W. Roth, Christos Louis, Francis Kalush, Richard J. Mural, Eugene W. Myers, Mark D. Adams, Hamilton O. Smith, Samuel Broder, Malcolm J. Gardner, Claire M. Fraser, Ewan Birney, Peer Bork, Paul T. Brey, J. Craig Venter, Jean Weissenbach, Fotis C. Kafatos, Frank H. Collins, Stephen L. Hoffman

Fig. 1: Annotation of the Anopheles gambiae genome sequence

Fig. 1 (foldout). The genome sequence is displayed on a nucleotide scale of about 200 kb/cm. Scaffold order along chromosomes was determined with the use of a physical map constructed by in situ hybridization of PEST strain BACs to salivary gland polytene chromosomes. Scaffold placement is shown in the track directly below the nucleotide scale. Individual scaffolds are identified by the last four digits of their GenBank accession number (e.g., scaffold AAAB01008987 is represented by 8987). For purposes of illustration, all scaffolds are separated by the average length of an interscaffold gap (317,904 bp, which is the total length of the unmapped scaffolds divided by the number of mapped scaffolds). Gaps between scaffolds are shaded gray in the scaffold track. The remainder of the figure is organized into three main groups of tracks: forward strand genes, sequence analysis, and reverse strand genes (from top to bottom, respectively). For each DNA strand (forward and reverse), each mapped gene is shown at genomic scale and is color-coded according to the automated annotation pipeline that predicted the gene (see Gene Authority panel on figure key). In addition, genes that are shorter than 10 kb and have two or fewer exons are shown in a separate track near the central sequence analysis section. All genes that are greater than 10 kb or have three or more exons are shown in an additional pair of tracks, expanded to a resolution close to 25 kb/cm. In these expanded tiers, exons are depicted as black boxes and introns are color-coded according to a set of Gene Ontology categories (GO,, as shown in the corresponding panel in the figure key. Three sequence analyses appear between the gene tracks: G+C content, sequence similarity to Drosophila melanogaster, and SNP density. The natural logarithm of the number of SNPs per 10 kb of sequence is used to color-code the SNP density analysis; G+C content is depicted by a nonlinear scale described in the figure key. Blocks of sequence with similarity to D. melanogaster genomic contigs are shown between the G+C and SNP tracks. Genes that have matching A. gambiae ESTs are shown directly flanking the central sequence analysis tracks, and are color-coded according to changes in EST density induced by a blood meal (see Post-Blood-Meal EST Density panel in figure key). This figure was generated with gff2ps (, a genome annotation tool that converts General Feature Formatted records ( to a Postscript output (60).

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