Supplementary Materials

Molecular Architecture and Assembly Principles of Vibrio cholerae Biofilms

Veysel Berk, Jiunn C. N. Fong, Graham T. Dempsey, Omer N. Develioglu, Xiaowei Zhuang, Jan Liphardt, Fitnat H. Yildiz, Steven Chu

Materials/Methods, Supporting Text, Tables, Figures, and/or References

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  • Materials and Methods
  • Figs. S1 to S17
  • Tables S1 and S2
  • Full Reference List

Images, Video, and Other Other Media

Movie S1
Reconstructed 3D V. cholerae biofilm structure showing the ordered organization of RbmA (gray), RbmC (red), Bap1 (green) and cells (blue).
Movie S2
V. cholerae biofilm development dynamics. Time-lapse bright field microscopy movie showing initial cell attachment, microcolonies and biofilm formation of rugose variant at the surface and 7 µm above the surface.
Movie S3
V. cholerae mutant strain lacking the matrix protein RbmC and Bap1 (BC-) formed structurally-compromised biofilms with reduced surface coverage. Time-lapse bright field microscopy movie showing initial cell attachment, microcolonies and biofilm formation of BCstrain at the surface and 7 µm above the surface. The reduced sturdiness of the biofilm structures was observed as random motions of biofilm aggregates at 7 μm above the surface.
Movie S4
Cells of V. cholerae mutant strain lacking all three matrix proteins RbmA, RbmC and Bap1 (ABC-) were compromised in surface attachment and biofilm formation. Time-lapse bright field microscopy movie showing that daughter cells of the ABC- strain (indicated by an arrow) were unable to stay attached to the founder cell and surface after cell divisions.
Movie S5
Cells of V. cholerae mutant strain unable to produce VPS (VPS-) were compromised in surface attachment and biofilm formation. Time-lapse bright field microscopy movie showing that daughter cells of the VPS- strain (indicated by an arrow) were unable to stay attached to the founder cell and surface after cell divisions.
Movie S6
V. cholerae rugose parent strain forms stable biofilm structures compared to a mutant strain lacking RbmC and Bap1 (BC-). Time-lapse bright field microscopy movie showing that the biofilms formed by BC- strain were randomly moving in growth medium while biofilms of rugose variant were stably attached to surface and random motions were not observed.