Supplementary Materials

How Low Can You Go? Physical Production Mechanism of Elephant Infrasonic Vocalizations

Christian T. Herbst, Angela S. Stoeger, Roland Frey, Jörg Lohscheller, Ingo R. Titze, Michaela Gumpenberger, W. Tecumseh Fitch

Materials/Methods, Supporting Text, Tables, Figures, and/or References

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  • Materials and Methods
  • Supplementary Text
  • Figs. S1 and S2
  • References (32–45)
  • Captions for Movies S1 and S2

Images, Video, and Other Other Media

Movie S1
Abrupt transition from chaotic to periodic vocal fold vibration. High-speed video
sequence showing the elephant vocal folds in our excised larynx setup. Note that a
gradual reduction of vocal fold elongation (and thus vocal fold tension) results in an
abrupt transition from a chaotic to a periodic vibratory regime. The dorsal end of the
vocal folds (inserting into the arytenoid cartilages) is oriented upwards in the image. The
total duration is 0.667 s (400 video frames at 600 frames per second).
Movie S2
Illustration of glottal contour extraction from high-speed video. High-speed video
sequence showing the elephant vocal folds vibrating at a subharmonic regime (period
doubling). The dorsal end of the vocal folds (inserting into the arytenoid cartilages) is
oriented upwards in the image. The total duration is 1.667 s (1000 video frames at 600
frames per second). The extracted vocal fold edges (41) were superimposed upon the
individual images (right = blue; left = red).