Supplementary Materials

Evolution of sweet taste perception in hummingbirds by transformation of the ancestral umami receptor

Maude W. Baldwin, Yasuka Toda, Tomoya Nakagita, Mary J. O'Connell, Kirk C. Klasing, Takumi Misaka, Scott V. Edwards, Stephen D. Liberles

Materials/Methods, Supplementary Text, Tables, Figures, and/or References

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  • Materials and Methods
  • Supplementary Text
  • Figs. S1 to S6
  • Tables S1 to S4
  • References (26–44)
  • Captions for Movies S1 and S2

Images, Video, and Other Other Media

Movie S1
Hummingbirds discriminate between water and sucrose rapidly. Highspeed video (slowed for viewing) of a ruby-throated hummingbird rejecting water presented in the top cuvette after three tongue licks (162 milliseconds). On average (5 birds, 2-3 trials per bird) rejections occurred within 3-4 tongue licks. Sucrose (500 mM, bottom cuvette) elicits a prolonged feeding bout.
Movie S2
Depiction of the behavioral assay involving wild hummingbirds. Video showing male Anna's hummingbirds (feeders 1 and 3) and a female hummingbird (feeder 6) in the behavioral paradigm. In this trial, feeders 1 and 4 contained aspartame (15 mM), feeders 2 and 5 contained a mixture of aspartame (15 mM) and sucrose (500 mM), and feeders 3 and 6 contained sucrose (500 mM). Feeders are numbered 1 through 6 in counter clockwise order. The bird at feeder 1 displayed a characteristic rejection behavior, while birds at feeders 3 and 6 fed for an extended duration.