Supplementary Materials

The shocking predatory strike of the electric eel

Kenneth Catania

Materials/Methods, Supplementary Text, Tables, Figures, and/or References

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  • Materials and Methods
  • Supplementary Text
  • Figs. S1 to S4

Images, Video, and Other Other Media

Movie S1
Eels emit two different magnitudes of electric organ discharge. The low amplitude discharge is used for exploring their environment and does not function in offense of defense. This video shows an eel emitting its low voltage electric organ discharge followed by an example of a high-­‐voltage volley during prey capture.
Movie S2
This movie shows examples of a eel capturing fish in slow motion. Red frames have been colorized to indicate each time a high-­‐voltage pulse was emitted. In some cases, when the eel discharge frequency slow, fish regain the ability to move and escape.
Movie S3
This movie shows eels emitting “doublets” or pairs of high-­‐voltage pulses while investigating their surroundings and various objects. In particular, eels often explore conductors with doublets. These sound like short chirps on the audio.
Movie S4
This movie shows a pithed fish (under perforated, thick agar) being investigated by an eel using doublets. Note the effect of the doublets on the pithed-­‐fish muscles and the subsequent transition of the eel from exploratory to attack behavior.
Movie S5
This movie shows examples of eels hunting prey (below agar) using an initial doublet that evokes prey movement.
Movie S6
This movie shows examples of experiments and controls that use stimulation of a pithed fish preparation to mimic the effect of an eel doublet on prey. See Figure 4 for more details on each variation.
Movie S7
This movie shows an eel, filmed from the side, as it uses doublets while hunting a tadpole below agar. As the tadpole moves in response to each doublet the eel followed and eventually attacks following a doublet (see trace of EOD at end of movie).