Supplementary Materials

Mechanical crack propagation drives millisecond daughter cell separation in Staphylococcus aureus

Xiaoxue Zhou, David K. Halladin, Enrique R. Rojas, Elena F. Koslover, Timothy K. Lee, Kerwyn Casey Huang, Julie A. Theriot

Materials/Methods, Supplementary Text, Tables, Figures, and/or References

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  • Materials and Methods
  • Supplementary Text
  • Figs. S1 to S14
  • Table S1
  • Full Reference List

Images, Video, and Other Other Media

Movie S1
Ultrafast popping of S. aureus strain Newman. Representative time-lapse movies of S. aureus strain Newman "popping" captured by phase-contrast microscopy at 1 ms/frame.
Movie S2
Deflation of S. aureus Newman cells. Time-lapse movies of "ready-to-pop" S. aureus Newman cells treated with 5% sarkosyl as in Fig. S1A.
Movie S3
3D Visualization of the old-wall labeling pattern after popping. Volume view of the 3D SIM images of fixed Newman cells pulse labeled with WGA-488 and followed by 0 or 10 min chase growth in the absence of the dye (Fig. 1D).
Movie S4
Illustration of the 2D cell outline tracking. Time-lapse movie of S. aureus cells stained with FM 4-64 (left) and outlined by fitting with ellipses (right) as in Fig. 2A. Scale bar: 1 μm.
Movie S5
Tracking cell separation with cytoplasmic GFP in 3D. Time-lapse movie of S. aureus cells expressing cytoplasmic GFP acquired with 3D deconvolution microscopy (only one z slice was shown) and the corresponding z stacks before and after a popping event. Scale bar: 1 μm.
Movie S6
Illustration of cell growth during septum construction. Time-lapse movies of intermediate models of the cell and septum growth, interpolating between state 1 and state 2 (Fig. S6). The von Mises stress at the peripheral ring connecting the two daughter cells (arrow) becomes higher than elsewhere in the outer wall as the cell grows. In addition, the aspect ratio increases as the cell and septum grow.
Movie S7
Daughter cells do not fully round up during popping. Time-lapse movie of daughter cell separation captured at 3 min/frame (same cell as in Fig. 1E left). Cells were labeled with WGA-488 before mounted and the cell membrane was stained with FM 4-64.