Supplementary Materials

Why the seahorse tail is square

Michael M. Porter, Dominique Adriaens, Ross L. Hatton, Marc A. Meyers, Joanna McKittrick

Materials/Methods, Supplementary Text, Tables, Figures, and/or References

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  • Materials and Methods
  • Figures S1 to S8
  • Table S1
  • Full Reference List

Images, Video, and Other Other Media

Movie S1
Real-time bending and twisting performance of the prototypes. The square and cylindrical prototypes both bend and twist with several internal degrees of freedom. The peg-and-socket joints provide a passive mechanism that perserves ariculatory organization in the square prototype, but not in the cylindrical one. As demostrated, the square prototype returns to a linearly aligned resting position after deformation, while the cylindrical one remains misaligned. The dashed yellow lines depict the final resting positions of the prototypes after manipulation.
Movie S2
High-speed impact and crushing performance of the prototypes. The sqaure and cylindrical prototypes both absorb energy by deforming under the impact of a rubber mallet. As demostrated, the square prototype crushes linearly with approximately one degree of freedom (at the point of impact), absorbs the impact, and returns to a linearly aligned resting position after deformation. The cylindrical prototype, on the other hand, crushes with approximately two degrees of freedom (by translating and rotating), transfers energy through the vertebal column, and becomes misaligned after deformation.