Supplementary Materials

Open-ocean fish reveal an omnidirectional solution to camouflage in polarized environments

Parrish C. Brady, Alexander A. Gilerson, George W. Kattawar, James M. Sullivan, Michael S. Twardowski, Heidi M. Dierssen, Meng Gao, Kort Travis, Robert Ian Etheredge, Alberto Tonizzo, Amir Ibrahim, Carlos Carrizo, Yalong Gu, Brandon J. Russell, Kathryn Mislinski, Shulei Zhao, Molly E. Cummings

Materials/Methods, Supplementary Text, Tables, Figures, and/or References

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  • Materials and Methods S1 to S5
  • Figs. S1 to S7
  • Tables S1 to S10
  • References (26–39)
  • Captions for Movies S1 to S3

Images, Video, and Other Other Media

Movie S1
3D visualization of the classic underwater vertical mirror camouflage strategy in a radiance-varying light field (no polarization) based on the Denton (2) theory illustrated using a virtual model of the lookdown (Selene vomer). This visualization was made in Blender using a point light source creating semi-homogeneous background light fields.
Movie S2
3D visualization of the underwater camouflage strategies for a vertical mirror in a polarized environment based on the Mueller matrix model found in Brady et. al. (12) illustrated using a virtual model of the lookdown (Selene vomer). In this visualization the color represents the angle of polarization (see Fig 1C) and the saturation of the color is related to the degree of polarization.
Movie S3
Measuring the Biological Response to the Polarized Underwater Light Field, Curaçao 2012. For a given suite of measurements, fish are constrained against a mirror and DMR using soft elastic netting (Fig. 1B (main text)); while the entire platform rotates about the water column (Fig 1B, i), polarimeter data is collected using the videopolarimeter. Simultaneously, radiometric polarimetery, RayXP, and volume scattering measurements are taken (Fig 1B ii & iii).