Supplementary Materials

Collective cell durotaxis emerges from long-range intercellular force transmission

Raimon Sunyer, Vito Conte, Jorge Escribano, Alberto Elosegui-Artola, Anna Labernadie, Léo Valon, Daniel Navajas, José Manuel García-Aznar, José J. Muñoz, Pere Roca-Cusachs, Xavier Trepat

Materials/Methods, Supplementary Text, Tables, Figures, and/or References

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  • Materials and Methods
  • Supplementary Text
  • Figs. S1 to S16
  • Tables S1 and S2
  • References

Images, Video, and Other Media

Movie S1
Progression of a MCF-10A cluster migrating on a uniform stiffness gel (top, 6.6 kPa) and a cluster migrating on a stiffness gradient gel (bottom, stiffness is indicated at the bottom). Time-lapse phase-contrast images were acquired one frame every 10 min. Scale bar, 100 ??m.
Movie S2
Migration of MCF-10A cells seeded on a stiffness gradient gel as single cells. The stiffness along the gradient is indicated at the top of the movie in kPa. Time-lapse phase-contrast images were acquired one frame every 10 min. Scale bar, 100 ??m.
Movie S3
Migration of MCF-10A depleted of ??-catenin and seeded on a stiffness gradient gel as single cells. The stiffness along the gradient is indicated at the top of the movie in kPa. Time-lapse phase-contrast images were acquired one frame every 10 min. Scale bar, 100 ??m.
Movie S4
Progression of a control MCF-10A cluster (top) and a cluster with down-regulated ??-catenin (bottom) on a stiffness gradient gel. The stiffness of every gradient is indicated at the top of each panel in kPa. Time-lapse phase-contrast images were acquired one frame every 10 min. Scale bar, 100 ??m.
Movie S5
Dynamics of a MCF-10A cluster migrating on a uniform gel of 15 kPa. (Top left) Individual cell tracks (color code indicates speed) overlaid on phase contrast images. (Top right) Gel deformation ux overlaid on phase contrast images. (Bottom left) Traction force field Tx overlaid on phase contrast images. (Bottom right) monolayer tension ??xx overlaid on phase contrast images. Scale bar, 150 ??m.
Movie S6
Dynamics of a MCF-10A cluster migrating on a gradient gel. (Top left) Individual cell tracks (color code indicates speed) overlaid on phase contrast images. (Top right) Gel deformation ux overlaid on phase contrast images. (Bottom left) Traction force field Tx overlaid on phase contrast images. (Bottom right) monolayer tension ??xx overlaid on phase contrast images. Scale bar, 100 ??m.
Movie S7
Progression of a control MCF-10A cluster (top) and a cluster treated with 40??M of Blebbistatin (bottom) on a stiffness gradient gel. The stiffness of every gradient is indicated -41- at the top of each panel in kPa. Time-lapse phase-contrast images were acquired one frame every 10 min. Scale bar, 100 ??m.
Movie S8
A cluster of MCF-10A cells migrates directionally as a single unit (rather than expanding asymmetrically) when positioned on the softest region of the gradient gel. The stiffness along the gradient is indicated at the top of the movie in kPa. Scale bar, 100 ??m.
Movie S9
Dynamics of a MCF-10A cluster depleted of ??-catenin migrating on a gradient gel. (Top left) Individual cell tracks (color code indicates speed) overlaid on phase contrast images. (Top right) Gel deformation ux overlaid on phase contrast images. (Bottom left) Traction force field Tx overlaid on phase contrast images. (Bottom right) monolayer tension ??xx overlaid on phase contrast images. Scale bar, 100 ??m.
Movie S10
A monolayer of MCF-10A cells before and after being severed with two laser cuts parallel to the monolayer midline. Laser ablation largely reduced collective durotaxis (Fig. 4I-L, Fig. S12). The stiffness along the gradient is indicated at the top of the movie in kPa. Scale bar, 100 ??m.