Supplementary Materials

Long-distance stone transport and pigment use in the earliest Middle Stone Age

Alison S. Brooks, John E. Yellen, Richard Potts, Anna K. Behrensmeyer, Alan L. Deino, David E. Leslie, Stanley H. Ambrose, Jeffrey R. Ferguson, Francesco d’Errico, Andrew M. Zipkin, Scott Whittaker, Jeffrey Post, Elizabeth G. Veatch, Kimberly Foecke, Jennifer B. Clark

Materials/Methods, Supplementary Text, Tables, Figures, and/or References

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  • Materials and Methods
  • Supplementary Text S1 to S8
  • Figs. S1 to S10
  • Tables S1 to S5, S13, and S15
  • Captions for Tables S6 to S12 and S14
  • References
Table S6
Obsidian source chemistry based on ED-XRF analysis at MURR of samples from sources in southern and south central Kenya: 2008-2012. For each source, a reference sample, catalogue data, and description were archived at the National Museums of Kenya (NMK). SHA # refer to S.H. Ambrose source catalogue numbers.
Table S7
Obsidian source chemistry based on NAA analysis at MURR of samples from sources in southern and south central Kenya also analyzed by ED-XRF at MURR (Table S6).
Table S8
Obsidian source chemistry based on pXRF analysis in 2016 of 84 samples from 35 obsidian source localities archived at NMK. Source samples not linked to artifacts in either study (Tables S10-S12) are highlighted in grey. *Sources identified in the MURR study only. **Source samples linked to artifacts in both the MURR and NMK studies.
Table S9
Obsidian source chemistry, groupings and statistical measures of variability based on pXRF study of samples at NMK (Table S8). Many 2008-2012 source samples from the same sample collection points were also analyzed by XRF and NAA at MURR (Table S6-S7). M & B petrography group refers to Merrick and Brown (52) petrological group numbers. Their source locations were resampled in 2008-2010. Sources discovered in 2008-2016 that do not fit M & B groups are labeled N/A.
Table S10
Artifact compositional chemistry and probable source attribution, determined by ED-XRF at MURR on 119 small debitage chips from BOK-2 and BOK-4 collected in 2008-9. Artifacts marked * were also analyzed by NAA (Table S11) to confirm the attribution.
Table S11
Artifact compositional chemistry and probable source grouping determined by NAA at MURR on small debitage chips from BOK-2 and BOK-4 collected in 2008-9.
Table S12
Larger artifact compositional chemistry and probable source groupings of 513 artifacts from BOK-2 and 56 from BOK-4, determined by pXRF analysis at the NMK in 2016. "Unknown" for BOK-2 levels A-D, as shown in Fig. S2 and Fig. 3 inset map, refers to pieces located between levels; attribution to level is indeterminate. Source groupings 1-5 are as in Fig. 3. Groupings 1, 3, 4, and 5 best sample groups from Ol Perolongo, Ol Doinyo Nyokie group, Ol Kitara, and Kedong Road/Ridge, respectively. Group 2, which is well-represented throughout, is a currently unknown source. 'Unassigned' pieces are individual artifacts that do not form a group or match known source groups.
Table S14
Chemical composition results in ppm of individual ablations of two GOK-1 red rocks and Mt. Olorgesailie source samples.