Supplementary Materials

A tailless aerial robotic flapper reveals that flies use torque coupling in rapid banked turns

Matěj Karásek, Florian T. Muijres, Christophe De Wagter, Bart D. W. Remes, Guido C. H. E. de Croon

Materials/Methods, Supplementary Text, Tables, Figures, and/or References

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  • Materials and Methods
  • Supplementary Text
  • Figs. S1 to S26
  • Tables S1 to S6
  • Captions for Movies S1 to S10
  • References

Images, Video, and Other Media

Movie S1
High-speed video recording (1000 fps) of the robot prototype in hovering flight, whereby the autopilot maintains stable flight of the inherently unstable flight platform. The movie shows the maneuver twice, first in real-time and then slowed down 33 times.
Movie S2
High-speed video recording (1000 fps) capturing the robot prototype during the pitch maneuver described in the section 'Rapid transitions from hover to fast forward/sideways flight and back' (18). During the maneuver, the robot transitioned from hover to forward flight by rapidly pitching forward, and then pitched back again to return to a hover condition. The movie shows the maneuver twice, first in real-time and then slowed down 33 times.
Movie S3
High-speed video recording (1000 fps) capturing the robot prototype during the roll maneuver described in the section 'Rapid transitions from hover to fast forward/sideways flight and back' (18). During the maneuver, the robot transitioned from hover to sideways flight by rapidly rolling sideways, and then roll back again to return to a hover condition. The movie shows the maneuver twice, first in real-time and then slowed down 33 times.
Movie S4
High-speed video recording (240 fps) capturing the robot prototype rapidly accelerating from hover to fast forward flight, as part of the reproducibility test experiments (18). During the maneuver, the robot transitioned from hover to a set forward body pitch angle. The movie shows the maneuver three times: twice in real-time, and once slowed down 16 times.
Movie S5
High-speed video recording (240 fps) capturing the robot prototype making 360° roll flip maneuver, as described in the section 'Rapid 360° roll and pitch up flips: barrel rolls and loopings' (18). The movie shows the maneuver three times, twice in real-time and once slowed down 16 times.
Movie S6
High-speed video recording (240 fps) capturing the robot prototype making 360° pitch flip maneuver, as described in the section 'Rapid 360° roll and pitch up flips: barrel rolls and loopings' (18). The movie shows the maneuver three times, twice in real-time and once slowed down 16 times.
Movie S7
High-speed video recording (240 fps) of the robot prototype making a fly inspired rapid banked turn, as described in the section 'Rapid banked turns inspired by the evasive maneuvers of fruit flies' (18). The movie shows the maneuver three times, twice in real-time and once slowed down 16 times.
Movie S8
Animation of the comparison between the fly-inspired rapid banked turn (Fig. 2A, movie slowed down 16 times) and the original maneuver by the fruit fly (Fig. 2B, movie slowed down 150 times) (3). The difference in size between the robot and fruit fly is indicated by the scale bars in the video, representing the wing span of the robot and fly. The wing motion of the robot is for illustration purposes only; the flapping frequency was estimated using the on-board recorded commands.
Movie S9
Animation of the comparison between the fly-inspired rapid banked turn (Fig. 2C, movie slowed down 16 times) and the original maneuver by the fruit fly (Fig. 2D, movie slowed down 150 times) (3). The difference in size between the robot and fruit fly is indicated by the scale bars in the video, representing the wing span of the robot and fly. The wing motion of the robot is for illustration purposes only; the flapping frequency was estimated using the on-board recorded commands.
Movie S10
Animation of the fly-inspired rapid banked turn of Fig. 2E (q/p = 0.54), as described in the section 'Rapid banked turns inspired by the evasive maneuvers of fruit flies' (18). The animation was upsampled to 120 fps and replayed at 20 fps, and thus movie playback is slowed down 6 times. The three-dimensional trajectory is shown by the magenta dotted line, and the trajectory projections are shown as black dotted lines. Wings are color-coded with percentage motor command, see color bar. The flight phase, time t, speed U, and roll, pitch and yaw angle throughout the maneuver are provided in the top left of the movies. The wing motion of the robot is for illustration purposes only; the flapping frequency was estimated using the on-board recorded commands.