Supplementary Materials

Keyhole threshold and morphology in laser melting revealed by ultrahigh-speed x-ray imaging

Ross Cunningham, Cang Zhao, Niranjan Parab, Christopher Kantzos, Joseph Pauza, Kamel Fezzaa, Tao Sun, Anthony D. Rollett

Materials/Methods, Supplementary Text, Tables, Figures, and/or References

Download Supplement
  • Materials and Methods
  • Supplementary Text
  • Figs. S1 to S9
  • Captions for Movies S1 to S14
  • References

Images, Video, and Other Media

Movie S1
Progression of the melt pool and vapor depression in Ti-6Al-4V bare plate under stationary laser illumination. The camera recording rate is 200 kHz. The laser spot size is 140 μm, the power is 156 W, and the duration is 2 ms. The horizontal and vertical dimensions of the images are 0.45 mm and 0.40 mm, respectively.
Movie S2
Morphology and dynamic fluctuation of vapor depression in Ti-6Al-4V bare plate. The camera recording rate is 50 kHz. The laser spot size is 95 μm, the power is 156 W, and the scan velocity is 700 mm/s. The horizontal and vertical dimensions of the images are 1.04 mm and 0.29 mm, respectively.
Movie S3
Morphology and dynamic fluctuation of vapor depression in Ti-6Al-4V bare plate. The camera recording rate is 50 kHz. The laser spot size is 95 μm, the power is 260 W, and the scan velocity is 600 mm/s. The horizontal and vertical dimensions of the images are 1.12 mm and 0.40 mm, respectively.
Movie S4
Morphology and dynamic fluctuation of vapor depression in Ti-6Al-4V bare plate. The camera recording rate is 50 kHz. The laser spot size is 95 μm, the power is 312 W, and the scan velocity is 1200 mm/s. The horizontal and vertical dimensions of the images are 1.39 mm and 0.47 mm, respectively.
Movie S5
Morphology and dynamic fluctuation of vapor depression in Ti-6Al-4V bare plate. The camera recording rate is 50 kHz. The laser spot size is 95 μm, the power is 364 W, and the scan velocity is 900 mm/s. The horizontal and vertical dimensions of the images are 1.92 mm and 0.47 mm, respectively.
Movie S6
Morphology and dynamic fluctuation of vapor depression in Ti-6Al-4V bare plate. The camera recording rate is 50 kHz. The laser spot size is 95 μm, the power is 520 W, and the scan velocity is 700 mm/s. The horizontal and vertical dimensions of the images are 1.25 mm and 0.85 mm, respectively.
Movie S7
Morphology and dynamic fluctuation of vapor depression in Ti-6Al-4V powder bed. The camera recording rate is 50 kHz. The laser spot size is 95 μm, the power is 416 W, and the scan velocity is 700 mm/s. The horizontal and vertical dimensions of the images are 1.98 mm and 0.50 mm, respectively.
Movie S8
Morphology and dynamic fluctuation of vapor depression in Ti-6Al-4V bare plate. The camera recording rate is 50 kHz. The laser spot size is 95 μm, the power is 416 W, and the scan velocity is 700 mm/s. The horizontal and vertical dimensions of the images are 1.98 mm and 0.50 mm, respectively.
Movie S9
Morphology and dynamic fluctuation of vapor depression in Ti-6Al-4V powder bed. The camera recording rate is 50 kHz. The laser spot size is 95 μm, the power is 416 W, and the scan velocity is 1500 mm/s. The horizontal and vertical dimensions of the images are 1.38 mm and 0.99 mm, respectively.
Movie S10
Morphology and dynamic fluctuation of vapor depression in Ti-6Al-4V bare plate. The camera recording rate is 50 kHz. The laser spot size is 95 μm, the power is 416 W, and the scan velocity is 1500 mm/s. The horizontal and vertical dimensions of the images are 1.38 mm and 0.99 mm, respectively.
Movie S11
Morphology and dynamic fluctuation of vapor depression in Ti-6Al-4V powder bed. The camera recording rate is 50 kHz. The laser spot size is 95 μm, the power is 208 W, and the scan velocity is 600 mm/s. The horizontal and vertical dimensions of the images are 1.98 mm and 0.50 mm, respectively.
Movie S12
Morphology and dynamic fluctuation of vapor depression in Ti-6Al-4V bare plate. The camera recording rate is 50 kHz. The laser spot size is 95 μm, the power is 208 W, and the scan velocity is 600 mm/s. The horizontal and vertical dimensions of the images are 1.98 mm and 0.50 mm, respectively.
Movie S13
Morphology and dynamic fluctuation of vapor depression in Ti-6Al-4V powder bed. The camera recording rate is 50 kHz. The laser spot size is 95 μm, the power is 208 W, and the scan velocity is 900 mm/s. The horizontal and vertical dimensions of the images are 1.98 mm and 0.50 mm, respectively.
Movie S14
Morphology and dynamic fluctuation of vapor depression in Ti-6Al-4V bare plate. The camera recording rate is 50 kHz. The laser spot size is 95 μm, the power is 208 W, and the scan velocity is 900 mm/s. The horizontal and vertical dimensions of the images are 1.98 mm and 0.50 mm, respectively.