Supplementary Materials

Cyclic lava effusion during the 2018 eruption of Kīlauea Volcano

M. R. Patrick, H. R. Dietterich, J. J. Lyons, A. K. Diefenbach, C. Parcheta, K. R. Anderson, A. Namiki, I. Sumita, B. Shiro, J. P. Kauahikaua

Materials/Methods, Supplementary Text, Tables, Figures, and/or References

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  • Materials and Methods
  • Supplementary Text
  • Figs. S1 to S14
  • Captions for Movies S1 to S6
  • References

Images, Video, and Other Media

Movie S1
This video shows an overview of the proximal region of the fissure 8 lava flow, during the 2018 lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano. Lava upwells in the dome fountains in the fissure 8 crater. Lava then pours into the spillway (proximal channel), before entering the broad perched channel. Video taken from a helicopter on 29 July 2018. Video by U.S. Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory.
Movie S2
Short-term fluctuations in the eruption rate of fissure 8 were common, and referred to as "pulses". Each cycle was typically 5-10 minutes. Troughs in the cycles were characterized by low levels of lava in the proximal channel (spillway) with low velocities. Peaks in the cycles were characterized by high levels of lava in the spillway, with higher velocities and more agitation and splashing. These peaks also had more vortices (lava tornadoes) created in the channel. Video is shown at actual speed, covering a typical pulsing cycle on 14 July 2018. Video by U.S. Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory.
Movie S3
Short-term pulsing, with periods of 5-10 minutes, was common in the fissure 8 channel. This time-lapse sequence shows the proximal channel (spillway), with the vent crater just off the right side of the image. Pulsing in the channel is inversely related to fountaining at the vent. Seismic tremor, shown by RSAM, is a proxy for the fountaining intensity. Images were collected on 14 July 2018 by a timelapse camera operated by the U.S. Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory.
Movie S4
Pulsing in the lava channel occurred with periods of 5-10 minutes, and included changes in the vent crater as well as the proximal channel. The vigor of activity was inversely related in these two locations. This video was taken by an unmanned aircraft system (UAS), operated by the U.S. Geological Survey, on 14 July 2018. Video is shown at 20x speed.
Movie S5
This video shows the increase in effusion rate in the fissure 8 lava flow following a summit collapse event on July 31, 2018. This increase is called a "surge", and begins within minutes of the summit collapse, peaking 2-4 hours later. The summit tilt offset around 08:00 HST shows the time of the summit collapse event. The increase in Fissure 8 flow vigor is shown by the effusion rate as well as the seismic tremor (shown by RSAM here). Images were taken by a timelapse camera operated by the U.S. Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory.
Movie S6
This timelapse video shows a "surge" of lava come through the distal fissure 8 lava channel. These surges in effusion rate at the vent were caused by caldera collapse events at the summit, 40 km upslope. The video shows the surge rapidly come down the channel, causing lava in the channel to rise, which then results in inflation of the channel levee, and eventually lava "seeping" out â€" presumably due to lava intruding through the levee. White smoke at the right side of the image is due to vegetation fires caused by channel overflows triggered by the surge. These overflows threatened the Noni Farms and Papaya Farms residential areas (Fig. 1B). The video is looped six times. The timelapse camera was operated by the U.S. Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory.