Supplementary Materials

A common hub for sleep and motor control in the substantia nigra

Danqian Liu, Weifu Li, Chenyan Ma, Weitong Zheng, Yuanyuan Yao, Chak Foon Tso, Peng Zhong, Xi Chen, Jun Ho Song, Woochul Choi, Se-Bum Paik, Hua Han, Yang Dan

Materials/Methods, Supplementary Text, Tables, Figures, and/or References

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  • Materials and Methods
  • Figs. S1 to S9
  • Table S1
  • Captions for Movies S1 to S4
  • References

Images, Video, and Other Media

Movie S1
Optogenetic activation of SNr GAD2 neurons suppresses movement and promotes sleep. Shown are EEG power spectrogram, EMG trace, motor activity (translation and total movement), color-coded behavioral states, and video recording of a Gad2Cre mouse expressing ChR2-eYFP in the SNr. Movement termination (trial 1), movement termination followed by sleep initiation (trials 2 and 3) and sleep maintenance (trail 4) were observed during laser stimulation (constant light, ~2 mW, 120 s). Laser stimulation period is depicted by the blue bar on the top and appearance of a blue circle at the upper left corner of the mouse video frame (bottom panel). Red outline shows automated segmentation of the mouse body. The video is shown at 5× the original speed. LM, locomotion; MV, non-locomotor movements; QW, quiet wakefulness; SL, sleep.
Movie S2
Optogenetic activation of SNr PV neurons suppresses movement Shown are EEG power spectrogram, EMG trace, motor activity (translation and total movement), color-coded behavioral states, and video recording of a PvalbCre mouse expressing ChR2-eYFP in the SNr. Laser stimulation period (constant light, ~2 mW, 120 s) is depicted by the blue bar on the top and appearance of a blue circle at the upper left corner of mouse video frame (bottom panel). Red outline shows automated segmentation of the mouse body. The video is shown at 5× the original speed. LM, locomotion; MV, non-locomotor movements; QW, quiet wakefulness; SL, sleep.
Movie S3
Whole-brain distributions of axons from SNr neurons. Shown are eYFP fluorescence signals for anterograde tracing from SNr GAD2 (magenta) and PV (cyan) neurons.
Movie S4
Whole-brain distributions of presynaptic inputs to SNr neurons. Shown are summary of presynaptic inputs to SNr GAD2 (magenta, n = 5 mice) and PV (cyan, n = 5) neurons. Gray circle represents region excluded from quantification (within 1 mm from the injection site).