Table 1.

Growth factor signals at the wound site.

Growth factorSourcePrimary target cells and effectRefs.
EGFPlateletsKeratinocyte motogen and mitogen(88)
TGF-αMacrophages; keratinocytesKeratinocyte motogen and mitogen(88, 89)
HB-EGFMacrophagesKeratinocyte and fibroblast mitogen(90)
FGFs 1, 2, and 4Macrophages and damaged endothelial cellsAngiogenic and fibroblast mitogen(27, 62)
FGF7 (KGF)Dermal fibroblastsKeratinocyte motogen and mitogen(27, 62)
PDGFPlatelets; macrophages; keratinocytesChemotactic for macrophages, fibroblasts; macrophage activation, fibroblast mitogen, and matrix production(46)
IGF-1Plasma; plateletsEndothelial cell and fibroblast mitogen(89, 91)
VEGFKeratinocytes; macrophagesAngiogenesis(64)
TGF-β1 and -β2Platelets; macrophagesKeratinocyte migration; chemotactic for macrophages and fibroblasts; fibroblast matrix synthesis and remodeling(47)
TGF-β3MacrophagesAntiscarring(47, 82)
CTGFFibroblasts; endotheliaFibroblasts; downstream of TGF-β1(49)
ActivinFibroblasts; keratinocytesCurrently unknown(48)
IL-1α and -βNeutrophilsEarly activators of growth factor expression in macrophages, keratinocytes, and fibroblasts(6)
TNF-αNeutrophilsSimilar to the IL-1s(6)