Table 1

Twelve novel genes and gene families in the NRY.

NRY genes and gene familiesFunctional X homologs
Gene symbolGene nameCommentsGenBank no.Tissue expressionMulticopy on YGene symbolGenBank no. or ref.X-Y amino acid sequence identityEscape X inactivation
DBY Dead Box Y Novel protein; “DEAD AF000985 UbiquitousNo DBX AF000983 91%Yes
box” motif suggests AF000984 AF000982
that this may be an RNA helicase (32)
TB4Y Thymosin β4, Y isoform X homolog sequesters actin (17) AF000989 UbiquitousNo TB4X (17)93%Yes
EIF1AY Translation Initiation Factor 1A, Y isoform X homolog is an essential initiation factor (18) AF000987 UbiquitousNo EIF1AX (18)97%Yes
UTY Ubiquitous TPR Mouse Y homolog AF000996 UbiquitousNo UTX AF000992 85%Yes
motif Y recently shown to AF000995 AF000993
encode an H-Y AF000994
antigen; contains 10 tandem “TPR” motifs implicated in protein-protein interaction (33); differential splicing may generate isoforms differing at COOH-terminals
DFFRY Drosophila Fat Facets Related Y X homolog recently described; Y previously thought to carry a transcribed pseudogene; homologous to Drosophiladeubiquinating enzyme required for eye development and oogenesis (19,34) AF000986 UbiquitousNo DFFRX (19)91%Yes
CDY Chromodomain Y Novel protein with “chromodomain” (35) and putative catalytic domain (36); might modify DNA or chromosomal proteins during spermatogenesis AF000981 TestisYes
BPY1 Basic Protein Y 1 Novel 125-residue protein rich in Ser, Lys, Arg, and Pro calculated; isoelectric point (pI) 9.4; Southern blotting reveals X homolog, but no X-derived cDNA clones identified to date AF000979 TestisYes
BPY2 Basic Protein Y 2 Novel 106-residue protein; calculated pI 10.0 AF000980 TestisYes
XKRY XK Related Y Novel protein with similarity to XK, a putative membrane transport protein (37) AF000997 TestisYes
PRY PTP-BL Related Y Novel protein with some similarity to PTP-BL, a putative protein tyrosine phosphatase (38) AF000988 TestisYes
TTY1 Testis Transcript Y 1 No significant open reading frame identified AF000990 TestisYes
TTY2 Testis Transcript Y 2 No significant open reading frame identified AF000991 TestisYes