Table 1

Baseline characteristics of uninfected and SIV-infected rhesus macaques, and a summary of the proliferation and death rates of their T lymphocytes. Proliferation and death rates were estimated using nonlinear least-squares regression. The subroutine DNLS1 from the Common Los Alamos Software Library, which is based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, was used to minimize the sum of the squared differences between the theoretical and measured values for each data point. Lower and upper 68% confidence bounds were calculated by a bootstrap method (29) and are shown in parentheses. Some estimates ofp are listed as zero. This only implies that the rounded estimate is <0.001. Because we only labeled with BrdU for 3 weeks, our method cannot detect cells that divide very infrequently. Furthermore, the theoretical model as described by Eq. 3 is based on the assumption that labeling of dividing cells is 100% effective. If this is not the case, then the estimate of p will underestimate the true proliferation rate. ND, not done.

MacaquesBaseline valuesBrdU intake (mg/kg/day)Proliferation rate,p (day−1)
Plasma Virions* (103per ml)CD4 cells (per μl)CD3+CD4+CD3+CD4
Uninfected
Rh 1372ND1562410.003  (0.002–0.003)0.001  (0.000–0.002)
Rh 1426ND1801430.000  (0.000–0.014)0.000  (0.000–0.012)
Rh 1466ND1017600.000  (0.000–0.013)0.000  (0.000–0.009)
Rh 1458ND848630.001  (0.000–0.011)0.003  (0.002–0.003)
Mean ± SE1307520.001 ± 0.00060.001 ± 0.0006
Weighted mean ± SE0.003 ± 0.00050.002 ± 0.0090
Infected (low)
Rh 1394<101180390.022  (0.006–0.038)0.004  (0.000–0.020)
Rh 1294<10906370.001  (0.000–0.023)0.000  (0.000–0.017)
Rh 1380<10900330.009  (0.000–0.021)0.000  (0.000–0.013)
Rh 1436<10404600.000  (0.000–0.020)0.000  (0.000–0.011)
Rh 132420953400.013  (0.007–0.019)0.017  (0.004–0.026)
Mean ± SE869420.009 ± 0.00420.004 ± 0.0032
Weighted mean ± SE0.011 ± 0.00570.003 ± 0.0051
Infected (high)
Rh 1314140295310.000  (0.000–0.053)0.001  (0.000–0.042)
Rh 1316450568580.025  (0.015–0.038)0.015  (0.007–0.025)
Rh 1292530690350.038  (0.031–0.061)0.068  (0.047–0.098)
Rh 14421200668540.000  (0.000–0.021)0.000  (0.000–0.017)
Rh 12841500366590.000  (0.000–0.018)0.000  (0.000–0.019)
Rh 12961900296420.107  (0.064–0.728)0.040  (0.023–0.063)
Rh 13482200391650.050  (0.020–0.089)0.038  (0.023–0.051)
Mean ± SE113146849 0.031 ± 0.0147 0.023 ± 0.0099
Weighted mean ± SE0.010 ± 0.01040.015 ± 0.0090
MacaquesDeath rate, d (day−1)Percent replacement (day−1)
CD3+CD4+CD3+CD4 CD3+CD4+ CD3+CD4
Uninfected
Rh 13720.005  (0.004–0.005)0.007  (0.006–0.008)0.20.6
Rh 14260.009  (0.009–0.021)0.011  (0.010–0.023)0.91.1
Rh 14660.016  (0.014–0.028)0.012  (0.012–0.020)1.61.2
Rh 14580.009  (0.008–0.018)0.013  (0.012–0.014)0.81.0
Mean ± SE0.010 ± 0.00230.011 ± 0.00130.9 ± 0.31.0 ± 0.1
Weighted mean ± SE0.005 ± 0.01100.010 ± 0.0021
Infected (low)
Rh 13940.042  (0.028–0.059)0.017  (0.012–0.033)2.01.3
Rh 12940.011  (0.011–0.033)0.012  (0.012–0.027)1.01.2
Rh 13800.030  (0.024–0.042)0.016  (0.015–0.029)2.11.6
Rh 14360.044  (0.042–0.064)0.026  (0.025–0.036)4.42.6
Rh 13240.031  (0.026–0.037)0.045  (0.036–0.055)1.82.8
Mean ± SE 0.032 ± 0.0059  0.023 ± 0.0058 2.3 ± 0.6 1.9 ± 0.3
Weighted mean ± SE0.032 ± 0.00620.024 ± 0.0066
Infected (high)
Rh 13140.015  (0.013–0.069)0.014  (0.013–0.056)1.51.3
Rh 13160.044  (0.035–0.056)0.044  (0.037–0.053)1.92.9
Rh 12920.058  (0.050–0.081)0.093  (0.070–0.124)2.02.5
Rh 14420.029  (0.026–0.050)0.034  (0.031–0.050)2.93.4
Rh 12840.022  (0.020–0.039)0.026  (0.023–0.043)2.22.6
Rh 12960.146  (0.109–0.758)0.063  (0.047–0.085)3.92.3
Rh 13480.093  (0.067–0.133)0.063  (0.049–0.076)4.32.5
Mean ± SE0.058 ± 0.0177 0.048 ± 0.0102 2.7 ± 0.4 2.5 ± 0.2
Weighted mean ± SE0.033 ± 0.00920.043 ± 0.0083
  • * Measured by the SIV bDNA assay (P. Dailey, Chiron) and expressed as RNA copies per volume.

  • Significantly different from the uninfected group (P < 0.05) by thet-test.

  • Calculated by weighting each value by the factor αi = (1/σi 2)/(∑i1/σi 2), where σi is the bootstrap estimate of the SE (29). To calculate the SE of the weighted mean, we used a random-effects model to account for both the variability of the least-squares estimate measured by bootstrap and the random variability among animals.