Table 1

Hypotheses tested with DNA sequence data. A significant result denotes rejection of the stated hypothesis. D is the difference in length between the most parsimonious tree (8889 steps) and the tree constrained to conform to the stated hypothesis. T s is the test statistic for the Wilcoxon signed-ranks test. n is the number of characters that differed in numbers of changes on the two trees. Z is the normal approximation when n > 100 (25). “Difference” is the difference in negative log likelihoods between the maximum likelihood tree (–ln L = 41,059.9) and the tree constrained to conform to the stated hypothesis. t is the Student‘s t test statistic.

HypothesisDTsnZParsimonyP valueLikelihood differencetLikelihoodP value
Monophyly of ecomorph class
Crown-giant1205,3502297.8<0.001424.27.5<0.001
Grass-bush16517,6473396.2<0.001633.88.5<0.001
Trunk422,0161133.4<0.001110.02.50.014
Trunk-crown2017,9212899.1<0.001771.011.6<0.001
Trunk-ground17522,9273826.3<0.001546.511.4<0.001
Twig9912,8822704.2<0.001384.06.6<0.001
Shortest tree with
16 ecomorph transitions52,7061060.40.68351.11.40.171
15 ecomorph transitions256,4441721.50.128103.12.70.007
14 ecomorph transitions487,8031982.50.011212.34.5<0.001