Table 1

Comparison of the strain and strain energy density.

MaterialY (GPa)TypicalSmYSm2/2 (J/cm3) YSm2/2ρ (J/kg)
Piezoceramic (1)640.1%0.134.25
Magnetostrictor (2)1000.2%0.221.6
PZN-PT single crystal (22)7.71.7%1.0131
Polyurethane elastomer (24)0.024%0.01613
P(VDF-TrFE) electrostrictor0.384%0.3160