Table 2

Helicobacter pylori antigens, vaccine formulations, and routes of administration proven efficacious in animal models of infection. Hp antigens that have been shown to exhibit efficacy in animal models in preventing infection or in eradicating an already established infection with Hp[reviewed in (36, 38); for nonmurine models, see (41,55)]. Urease (and its subunits) and heat shock proteins have also been tested in the murine model of infection with H. felis, because of the conservation of these proteins. Most of these antigens have been given mucosally, more often orally, in association with mucosal adjuvants such as CT and LT or the genetically inactivated LT mutant LTK63 (37, 39). More recently, other mucosal routes have been tested (56). Finally, the parenteral route of immunization has been shown to represent a potentially feasible approach (40).

Animal modelH. pylori antigen(s)Adjuvant* or vectorRouteInfection with
Prophylactic vaccination
MiceWhole-cell lysateCT, LT, LTK63osHf, Hp
UreaseCT, LT, LTK63osHf, Hp
CT, LTinHf, Hp
Saponin derivativescHp
UreB subunitCT, LTosHf, Hp
S. typhimurium inHp
HspACT, LTosHf
HspBCT, LT, LTK63osHf, Hp
UreB + HspALTosHf
CatalaseCT, LTosHp
VacALT, LTK63osHp
CagALTK63osHp
LTK63InHp
VacA + UreaseLT, LTK63osHp
Gnotobiotic pigletsWhole-cell lysateLTosHp
Freund'sscHp
Therapeutic vaccination
MiceWhole-cell lysateCT, LTK63osHf, Hp
UreBCTosHf
VacALTK63osHp
CagALTK63osHp
FerretsUreaseCTosHm
Rhesus monkeysUreBLTosHp
  • * CT, wild-type cholera toxin; LT, wild-type E. coliheat-labile enterotoxin; LTK63, genetically detoxified LT mutant carrying a Ser → Lys substitution at position 63 of the A subunit (57).

  • os, peroral; sc, subcutaneous; in, intranasal.

  • Hf, Helicobacter felis; Hp,Helicobacter pylori; Hm, Helicobacter mustelae.