Table 1

Partial list of human infections involving biofilms.

Infection or diseaseCommon biofilm bacterial species
Dental cariesAcidogenic Gram-positive cocci (e.g.,Streptococcus)
PeriodontitisGram-negative anaerobic oral bacteria
Otitis mediaNontypable strains ofHaemophilus influenzae
Musculoskeletal infectionsGram-positive cocci (e.g., staphylococci)
Necrotizing fasciitisGroup A streptococci
Biliary tract infectionEnteric bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli)
OsteomyelitisVarious bacterial and fungal species—often mixed
Bacterial prostatitisE. coli and other Gram-negative bacteria
Native valve endocarditisViridans group streptococci
Cystic fibrosis pneumoniaP. aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia
Meloidosis Pseudomonas pseudomallei
Nosocomial infections
ICU pneumoniaGram-negative rods
SuturesStaphylococcus epidermidis and S. aureus
Exit sitesS. epidermidis and S. aureus
Arteriovenous shuntsS. epidermidis and S. aureus
Schleral bucklesGram-positive cocci
Contact lensP. aeruginosa and Gram-positive cocci
Urinary catheter cystitisE. coli and other Gram-negative rods
Peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) peritonitisA variety of bacteria and fungi
IUDsActinomyces israelii and many others
Endotracheal tubesA variety of bacteria and fungi
Hickman cathetersS. epidermidis and C. albicans
Central venous cathetersS. epidermidis and others
Mechanical heart valvesS. aureus and S. epidermidis
Vascular graftsGram-positive cocci
Biliary stent blockageA variety of enteric bacteria and fungi
Orthopedic devicesS. aureus and S. epidermidis
Penile prosthesesS. aureus and S. epidermidis