Table 3

Global view of transcriptional changes induced by aging and caloric restriction.

Aging Caloric restriction
↑ Stress response ↑ Protein metabolism
Induction of: Increased synthesis
Heat shock response Increased turnover
DNA damage–inducible genes
Oxidative stress–inducible genes ↑ Energy metabolism
Up-regulation of gluconeogenesis,
↓ Energy metabolism and the pentose phosphate shunt
Reduced glycolysis
Mitochondrial dysfunction ↑ Biosynthesis
Fatty acid synthesis
↑ Neuronal injury Nucleotide precursors
Reinnervation
Neurite extension and sprouting ↓ Macromolecular damage
Suppression of:
Inducible heat shock factors
Inducible detoxification systems
Inducible DNA repair systems