Table 1

Mass mortalities (>10% mortality within populations, where enumerated) among natural populations of selected marine species. Environmental correlates: T, temperature; ND, no data; sal, salinity; turb, turbidity; hur, hurricane.

Start dateHost speciesOutbreak locationPathogen identityEstimated mortality (%)Environmental correlatesRef.
1938SpongesNorth CaribbeanFungus?70–95ND 86
1931Zostrea (seagrasses)North America, EuropeSlime moldExtensiveHigh T 87
1946Crassostrea (oyster)Gulf Coast, U.S.A. Perkinsus marinus ExtensiveHigh T, sal 88
1954Clupea (herring)Gulf St. Lawrence Ichthyophonus hoferi 50ND 89
1955Lobodon (seal)AntarcticaVirusExtensiveND 90
1974Ostrea (flat oyster)Northwestern Spain Marteilia refringens ExtensiveND 19
1975Heliaster (starfish)Western U.S.A.?<100High T 91
1980Strongylocentrotus (urchin)Northwestern AtlanticAmoeba?>50ND 92
1980Ostrea (oyster)Netherlands Bonamia ostreae ExtensiveND 93
1981Acropora (coral)CaribbeanwideBacteria?>100ND  8
1982Gorgonia (coral)Central America?ExtensiveHigh T 29
1982–6Haliotis (abalone)AustraliaPerkinsus sp.ExtensiveHigh T 94
1983CoralsCaribbeanwideMicrobial consortiumSeasonal 95
1983Patinopecten (scallop)Western Canada Perkinsus qugwadi ExtensiveND 96
1983Diadema (urchin)CaribbeanwideBacteria?>95High T  6
1985Haliotis (abalone)Northeastern Pacific?>95High T 97
1986–90Ruditapes (clam)Portugal Perkinsus atlanticus ExtensiveND 98
1987Thalassia (seagrass)Florida, U.S.A.Slime mold<95High T, sal  9
1988Argopecten (scallop)North CaribbeanProtozoanExtensiveND 99
1988Phoca (seals)Northwestern EuropeVirus∼70Pollution 22
1988Phocoena (porpoise)Northeastern IrelandVirus?Pollution100
1989Argopecten (scallop)Eastern Canada Perkinsus sp.? ExtensiveND101
1989Phoca (seals)Lake BaikalVirus>10ND102
1990Stenella (dolphin)Western MediterraneanVirus>20Pollution103
1991Clupea (herring)Western Sweden Ichthyophonus hoferi >10Low T104
1992Ecklonia (kelp)Northeastern New Zealand?40–100High turb105
1993Coralline algaeSouth PacificBacteria?ExtensiveND106
1995Strongylocentrotus (urchin)NorwayNematode?∼90ND107
1995Gorgonia (corals)CaribbeanwideFungusExtensiveND108
1995Dichocoeniaand others (coral)Florida, U.S.A.Bacteria<38Seasonal109
1996Diploriaand others (coral)Puerto RicoBacteriaExtensiveSeasonal, hur110
1997Porolithon (algae)SamoaFungusExtensiveND111
1997Sardinops (pilchard)Southern AustraliaVirus?ExtensiveND112
1997Monachus(seal)West AfricaVirus/toxin>75ND 16